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NAVAL WAR COLLEGE 



INTERNATIONAL LAW 
TOPICS 

DOCUMENTS ON 

NEUTRALITY AND WAR 

WITH NOTES 



1915 



m 



WASHINGTON 
1916 



PREFACE. 



The discussions upon international law during the year 
1915 were conducted by George Grafton Wilson, LL. D. r 
professor of international law in Harvard University. 
Matters relating to the war which has been going on 
since July, 1914, were under consideration. Final opin- 
ions can not be offered at the present time, and for this 
reason the War College contents itself in the main with 
statements of facts concerning which there is no dispute, 
and with copies of official documents. It is hoped that 
the present volume will be of considerable value in the 
future, as a work of reference, not only for officers of the 
Navy, but for others who may be engaged in the study of 
international law as affected by the"history of the unpre- 
cedented crisis through which the world is now passing. 

The documents particularly referred to in the discus- 
sions are printed with brief notes. Some of these docu- 
ments are accessible in the publications of the Govern- 
ment of the United States. Others are not easily 
accessible. 

As in previous years the Naval War College desires to 
receive such questions as officers deem worthy of con- 
sideration, and for such questions the documents here- 
with published may furnish many suggestions. 

Austin M. Knight, 
Rear Admiral, United States Navy, 

President, Naval War College. 

December 15, 1915. 

3 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 

I. Neutrality proclamations of the United States 7-15 

Neutrality — Italy and Austria-Hungary 7 

Neutrality — Panama Canal Zone 11 

Protocol of an agreement between the United States and 

Panama 14 

II. Enemy vessels at outbreak of war 16-32 

Days of grace 16 

Interference before war 16 

Review of regulations 17 

Naval "War College proposal, 1906 18 

Great Britain and Germany 19 

Order in council, August 4, 1914 19 

Notification, August 7, 1914 22 

Great Britain and Austria-Hungary 23 

Notification, August 15, 1914 23 

Proclamation, August 12, 1914 24 

Great Britain and Bulgaria 24 

Proclamation, October 16, 1915 24 

Germany and France 26 

Declaration, August 3, 1914 26 

Decree, August 4, 1914 26 

France and Austria-Hungary 27 

Decree, August 13, 1914 27 

Italy and Austria-Hungary 27 

Decree, May 30, 1915 27 

Notification as to cargoes 28 

Decree, June 17, 1915 29 

Decree, June 24, 1915 31 

III. Prohibition of exports from neutral States 33-56 

General statement 33 

Prohibited articles 33 

Denmark 33 

Greece 36 

Netherlands 36 

Norway 39 

Portugal 42 

Roumania 43 

Spain 43 

Sweden 44 

Switzerland 53 

5 



TABLE OF CONTEXTS. 

Page. 

IV. Embargoes by belligerents 57-92 

General 57 

British 57 

A To all destination? 58 

1 1 To non-British ports 60 

(C) To European ports except allies 63 

German export and transit embargo 64 

I . Animals and animal products 64 

II. Subsistence supplies, bedding, and fod- 
der 65 

III. Arms, ammunition, powder, explosives. 70 

I V. Oils, etc 71 

V. Vehicles 79 

VI . Machinery 80 

VII. Electrotechnical products and requisites 80 

VIII . Instruments and apparatus 82 

IX. Ores, etc 83 

X. Wood, etc 86 

XI . Hides, etc 86 

XII. Rubber 87 

XIII. Textile goods 89 

XIV. Paper 90 

XV. Earth, stones, etc 90 

XVI. Wax. lights, soap, etc 90 

Supplements 91 

V. Declaration of London 93-117 

Introduction 93 

Correspondence of United States and other powers 93 

Declaration 100 

Preliminary provisions 101 

Blockade 101 

Contraband 103 

Lists of contraband, 1915 103 

Unneutral service 110 

Destruction of neutral prizes Ill 

Transfer of flag 112 

Enemy character 112 

British and French provisions, 1915 112 

Convoy 113 

Resistance to search 114 

Compensation 114 

Final provisions 114 

Italian Prize Regulations 114 

Index 119-122 



DOCUMENTS ON NEUTRALITY AND WAR. 



I. 

NEUTRALITY PROCLAMATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Statement. — -The President of the United States has 
issued general neutrality proclamations from time to time 
since August 4, 1914. He issued a special proclamation 
relating to the Panama Canal Zone on November 13, 1914 
(p. 11), which was accompanied by a protocol of an agree- 
ment between the United States and Panama (p. 14). 

[Neutrality — Italy and Austria-Hungary.] ' 
By the President of the United States of America, 
A PROCLAMATION. 

Whereas a state of war unhappily exists between Italy and Austria- 
Hungary; 

And whereas the United States is on terms of friendship and amity 
with the contending powers, and with the persons inhabiting their 
several dominions; 

And whereas there are citizens of the United States residing within 
the territories or dominions of each of the said belligerents and carrying 
on commerce, trade, or other business or pursuits therein; 

And whereas there are subjects of each of the said belligerents resid- 
ing within the territory or jurisdiction of the United States, and carry- 
ing on commerce, trade, or other business or pursuits therein; 

And whereas the laws and treaties of the United States, without in- 
terfering with the free expression of opinion and sympathy, or with the 
commercial manufacture or sale of arms or munitions of war, neverthe- 
less impose upon all persons who may be within their territory and 
j arisdiction the duty of an impartial neutrality during the existence of 
the contest; 



1 Proclamations declaring and enjoining neutrality, of like purport, were issued as 
follows: Austria-Hungary and Servia, Germany and Russia, Germany and France, 
Aug. 4, 1914; Germany and Great Britain, Aug. 5, 1914; Austria-Hungary and Russia, 
Aug. 7, 1914; Great Britain and Austria-Hungary, Aug. 13, 1914; France and Austria- 
Hungary, Aug. 14, 1914; Belgium and Germany, Aug. 18, 1914; Japan and Germany, 
Aug. 24, 1914; Japan and Austria- Hungary, Aug. 27, 1914; Belgium and Austria-Hun- 
gary, Sept. 1, 1914; Great Britain and Turkey, Nov. 6, 1914; Italy and Turkey, Aug. 23, 
1915. 



8 UNITED STATES NEUTRALITY PROCLAMATIONS. 

And whereas it is the duty of a neutral government not to permit or 
suffer the making of its waters su I (servient to the purposes of war; 

Now, therefore, I, "Woodrow AYilson, President of the United States 
of America, in order to preserve the neutrality of the United States and 
of its citizens and of persons within its territory and jurisdiction, and to 
enforce its laws and treaties, and in order that all persons, being warned 
of the general tenor of the laws and treaties of the United States in this 
behalf, and of the law of nations, may thus be prevented from any vio- 
lation of the same, do hereby declare and proclaim that by certain pro- 
visions of the act approved on the 4th day of March, A. D. 1909, com- 
monly known as the "Penal Code of the United States, " the following 
acts are forbidden to be done, under severe penalties, within the terri- 
tory and jurisdiction of the United States, to wit: 

1. Accepting and exercising a commission to serve either of the said 
belligerents by land or by sea against the other belligerent. 

• 2. Enlisting or entering into the service of either of the said belliger- 
ents as a soldier, or as a marine, or seaman on board of any vessel of war, 
letter of marque, or privateer. 

3. Hiring or retaining another person to enlist or enter himself in the 
service of either of the said belligerents as a soldier, or as a marine, or 
seaman on board of any vessel of war, letter of marque, or privateer. 

4. Hiring another person to go beyond the limits or jurisdiction of 
the United States with intent to be enlisted as aforesaid. 

5. Hiring another person to go beyond the limits of the United States 
with intent to be entered into service as aforesaid. 

6. Retaining another person to go beyond the limits of the United 
States with intent to be enlisted as aforesaid. 

7. Retaining another person to go beyond the limits of the United 
States with intent to be entered into service as aforesaid . (But the said 
act is not to be construed to extend to a citizen or subject of either bel- 
ligerent who, being transiently within the United States, shall, on board 
of any vessel of war, which, at the time of its arrival within the United 
States, was fitted and equipped as such vessel of war, enlist or enter 
himself or hire or retain another subject or citizen of the same belliger- 
ent, who is transiently within the United States, to enlist or enter him- 
self to serve such belligerent on board such vessel of war, if the United 
States shall then be at peace with such belligerent.) 

8. Fitting out and arming, or attempting to fit out and arm, or pro- 
curing to be fitted out and armed, or knowingly being concerned in the 
furnishing, fitting out, or arming of any ship or vessel with intent that 
such ship or vessel shall be employed in the service of either of the said 
belligerents. 

9. Issuing or delivering a commission within the territory or jvris- 
diction of the United States for any ship or vessel to the intent that she 
may be employed as aforesaid. 

10. Increasing or augmenting, or procuring to be increased or aug- 
mented, or knowingly being concerned in increasing or augmenting, the 
force of any ship of war, cruiser, or other armed vessel, which at the time 
of her arrival within the United States was a ship of war, cruiser, or 



TERRITORIAL WATERS. 9 

armed vessel in the service of either of the said belligerents, or belong- 
ing to the subjects of either, by adding to the number of guns of such 
vessels, or by changing those on board of her for guns of a larger caliber, 
or by the addition thereto of any equipment solely applicable to war. 

11. Beginning or setting on foot or providing or preparing the means 
for any military expedition or enterprise to be carried on from the terri- 
tory or jurisdiction of the United States against the territories or domin- 
ions of either of the said belligerents. 

And I do hereby further declare and proclaim that any frequenting 
and use of the waters within the territorial jurisdiction of the United 
States by the armed vessels of a belligerent, whether public ships or 
privateers, for the purpose of preparing for hostile operations, or as posts 
of observation upon the ships of war or privateers or merchant vessels of 
a belligerent lying within or being about to enter the jurisdiction of the 
United States, must be regarded as unfriendly and offensive, and in 
violation of that neutrality which it is the determination of this Gov- 
ernment to observe; and to the end that the hazard and inconvenience 
of such apprehended practices may be avoided, I further proclaim and 
declare that from and after the 25th day of May instant, and during 
the continuance of the present hostilities, no ship of war or privateer 
of any belligerent shall be permitted to make use of any port, harbor, 
roadstead, or other waters within the jurisdiction of the United States 
as a station or place of resort for any warlike purpose or for the pur- 
pose of obtaining any facilities of warlike equipment; and no ship of 
war or privateer of either belligerent shall be permitted to sail out of 
or leave any port, harbor, roadstead, or waters subject to the jurisdic- 
tion of the United States from which a vessel of an opposing bellig- 
erent (whether the same shall be a ship of war, a privateer, or a mer- 
chant ship) shall have previously departed, until after the expiration 
of at least 24 hours from the departure of such last-mentioned vessel 
beyond the jurisdiction of the United States. If any ship of war or 
privateer of a belligerent shall, after the time this notification takes 
effect, enter any port, harbor, roadstead, or waters of the United 
States, such vessel shall be required to depart and to put to sea within 
24 hours after her entrance into such port, harbor, roadstead, or waters, 
except in case of stress of weather or of her requiring provisions or 
things necessary for the subsistence of her crew, or for repairs; in any 
of which cases the authorities of the port or of the nearest port (as the 
case may be) shall require her to put to sea as soon as possible after 
the expiration of such period of 24 hours, without permitting her to 
take in supplies beyond what may be necessary for her immediate 
use; and no such vessel which may have been permitted to remain 
within the waters of the United States for the purpose of repair shall con- 
tinue within such port, harbor, roadstead, or waters for a longer period 
than 24 hours after her necessary repairs shall have been completed, 
unless within such 24 hours a vessel, whether ship of war, privateer, or 
merchant ship of an opposing belligerent, shall have departed there- 
from, in which case the time limited for the departure of such ship of 
war or privateer shall be extended so far as may be necessary to secure 



10 UNITE!) STATES NEUTRALITY PROCLAMATIONS. 

an interval of not less than 24 hours between such departure and that of 
any ship of war, privateer, or merchant ship of an opposing belligerent 
which may have previously quit the same port, harbor, roadstead, or 
waters. No ship of war or privateer of a belligerent shall be detained in 
any port, harbor, roadstead, or waters of the United States more than 24 
hours, by reason of the successive departures from such port, harbor, 
roadstead, or waters of more than one vessel of an opposing belligerent. 
But if there be several vessels of opposing belligerents in the same port, 
harbor, roadstead, or waters, the order of their departure therefrom 
shall be so arranged as to afford the opportunity of leaving alternately 
to the vessels of the opposing belligerents, and to cause the least deten- 
tion consistent with the objects of this proclamation. No ship of war 
or privateer of a belligerent shall be permitted, while in any port, 
harbor, roadstead, or waters within the jurisdiction of the United 
States, to take in any supplies except provisions and such other things 
as may be requisite for the subsistence of her crew, and except so 
much coal only as may be sufficient to carry such vessel, if without 
any sail power, to the nearest port of her own country; or in case the 
vessel is rigged to go under sail, and may also be propelled by steam 
power, then with half the quantity of coal which she would be entitled 
to receive, if dependent upon steam alone, and no coal shall be again 
supplied to any such ship of war or privateer in the same or any other 
port, harbor, roadstead, or waters of the United States, without special 
permission, until after the expiration of three months from the time 
when such coal may have been last supplied to her within the waters of 
the United States, unless such ship of war or privateer shall, since last 
thus supplied, have entered a port of the government to which she 
belongs. 

And I do further declare and proclaim that the statutes and the 
treaties of the United States and the law of nations alike require that 
no person, within the territory and jurisdiction of the United States, 
shall take part, directly or indirectly, in the said wars, but shall remain 
at peace with all of the said belligerents, and shall maintain a strict 
and impartial neutrality. 

And I do hereby enjoin all citizens of the United States, and all 
persons residing or being within the territory or jurisdiction of the 
United States, to observe the laws thereof, and to commit no act con- 
trary to the provisions of the said statutes or treaties or in violation of 
the law of nations in that behalf. 

And I do hereby warn all citizens of the United States, and all 
persons residing or being within its territory or jurisdiction that, while 
the free and full expression of sympathies in public and private is not 
restricted by the laws of the United States, military forces in aid of a 
belligerent can not lawfully be originated or organized within its juris- 
diction; and that, while all persons may lawfully and without restric- 
tion by reason of the aforesaid state of war manufacture and sell with 
the United States arms and munitions of war, and other articles ordi- 
narily known as "contraband of war," yet they can not carry such 
articles upon the high seas for the use or service of a belligerent, nor 



NEUTRALITY OF PANAMA CANAL ZONE. 11 

can they transport soldiers and officers of a belligerent, or attempt to 
break any blockade which may be lawfully established and maintained 
during the said wars without incurring the risk of hostile capture and 
the penalties denounced by the law of nations in that behalf. 

And I do hereby give notice that all citizens of the United States and 
others who may claim the protection of this Government, who may 
misconduct themselves in the premises, will do so at their peril, and 
that they can in no wise obtain any protection from the Government of 
the United States against the consequences of their misconduct. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal 
of the United States to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington this 24th day of May, in the year of 
our Lord 1915, and of the independence of the United States of America 
the one hundred and thirty-ninth. 

[seal.] Woodrow Wilson. 

By the President: 

W. J. Bryan, 

Secretary of State. 

[No. 1294.] 



[Neutrality Panama Canal Zone.] 

By the President of the United States of America. 

A PROCLAMATION. 

Whereas the United States is neutral in the present war and whereas 
the United States exercises sovereignty in the land and waters of the 
Canal Zone and is authorized by its treaty with Panama of February 
26, 1904, to maintain neutrality in the cities of Panama and Colon, 
and the harbors adjacent to the said cities: 

Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States 
of America, do hereby declare and proclaim the following rules and 
regulations governing the use of the Panama Canal by vessels of bellig- 
erents and the maintenance of neutrality by the United States in the 
Canal Zone, which are in addition to the general "Rules and Regula- 
tions for the Operation and Navigation of the Panama Canal and 
Approaches Thereto, including all Waters under its Jurisdiction " put 
into force by Executive order of July 9, 1914, and I do bring to the 
attention of all concerned the protocol of an agreement between the 
United States and the Republic of Panama, signed at Washington, 
October 10, 1914, which protocol is hereunto annexed. 

"Rule I. — A vessel of war, for the purposes of these rules, is denned 
as follows: a public armed vessel, under the command of an officer duly 
commissioned by the Government, whose name appears on the list of 
officers of the military fleet, and the crew of which are under regular 
naval discipline, which vessel is qualified by its armament and the 
character of its personnel to take offensive action against the public or 
private ships of the enemy. 



12 UNITED STATES Ml TRALITY PROCLAMATIONS. 

"Rule 2. — In order to maintain both the neutrality of the Canal and 
that of the United States owning and operating it as a Government 
enterprise, the same treatment, except as hereinafter noted, as that 
given to vessels of War of the belligerents shall be given to every vessel, 
belligerent or neutral, whether armed or not, that does not fall under 
the definition of rule 1. which vessel is employed by a belligerent power 
as a transport or fleet auxiliary or in any other way for the direct pur- 
pose of prosecuting or aiding hostilities, whether by land or sea; but 
such treatment shall not be given to a vessel fitted up and used ex- 
clusively as a hospital ship. 

"Rule 3. — A vessel of war of a belligerent, or a vessel falling under 
rule 2 which is commanded by an officer of the military fleet, shall only 
be permitted to pass through the canal after her commanding officer 
has given written assurance to the authorities of the Panama Canal 
that the rules and regulations will be faithfully observed. 

"The authorities of the Panama Canal shall take such steps as may be 
requisite to insure the observance of the rules and regulations by 
vessels falling under rule 2 which are not commanded by an officer of 
the military fleet. 

"Rule 4. — Vessels of war of a belligerent and vessels falling under 
rule 2 shall not revictual nor take any stores in the canal except so far 
as may be strictly necessary; and the transit of such vessels through 
the canal shall be effected with the least possible delay in accordance 
with the canal regulations in force, and with only such intermission as 
may result from the necessities of the service. 

"Prizes shall be in all respects subject to the same rules as vessels of 
war of the belligerents. 

"Rule 5. — No vessel of war of a belligerent or vessel falling under 
rule 2 shall receive fuel or lubricants while within the territorial waters 
of the Canal Zone, except on the written authorization of the canal 
authorities, specifying the amount of fuel and lubricants which may be 
received. 

"Rule 6. — Before issuing any authorization for the receipt of fuel 
and lubricants by any vessel of war of a belligerent or vessel falling 
under rule 2, the canal authorities shall obtain a written declaration 
duly signed by the officer commanding such vessel, stating the amount 
of fuel and lubricants already on board. 

"Rule 7. — Supplies will not be furnished by the Government of the 
United States, either directly or indirectly, through the intervention 
of a corporation, or otherwise, to vessels of war of a belligerent or vessels 
falling under rule 2. If furnished by private contractors, or if taken 
from vessels under the control of a belligerent, fuel and lubricants may 
be taken on board vessels of war of a belligerent or vessels falling under 
rule 2 only upon permission of the canal authorities, and then only in 
such amounts as will enable them, with the fuel and lubricants already 
on board, to reach the nearest accessible port, not an enemy port, at 
which they can obtain supplies necessary for the continuation of the 
voyage. The amounts of fuel and lubricants so received will be 
deducted from the amounts otherwise allowed in the ports under the 



NEUTRALITY OF PANAMA CANAL ZONE. 13 

jurisdiction of the United States during any time within a period of 
three months thereafter. Provisions furnished by contractors may be 
supplied only upon permission of the canal authorities, and then only 
in amount sufficient to bring up their supplies to the peace standard. 

"Rule 8. — No belligerent shall embark or disembark troops, muni- 
tions of war, or warlike materials in the canal, except in case of neces- 
sity due to accidental hindrance of the transit. In such cases the 
canal authorities shall be the judge of the necessity, and the transit 
shall be resumed with all possible dispatch. 

"Rule 9. — Vessels of war of a belligerent and vessels falling under 
rule 2 shall not remain in the territorial waters of the Canal Zone under 
the jurisdiction of the United States longer than 24 hours at any one 
time, except in case of distress; and in such case, shall depart as soon as 
possible; but a vessel of war of one belligerent shall not depart within 
24 hours from the departure of a vessel of an opposing belligerent. 

' ' The 24 hours of this rule shall be construed to be 24 hours in addition 
to the time necessarily occupied in passing through the canal. 

"Rule 10. — In the exercise of the exclusive right of the United 
States to provide for the regulation and management of the canal, and 
in order to insure that the canal shall be kept free and open on terms of 
entire equality to vessels of commerce and of war, there shall not be ex- 
cept by special arrangement , at any one time a greater number of vessels 
of war of any one nation, including those of the allies of a belligerent 
nation, than three in either terminal port and its adjacent terminal 
waters, or than three in transit through the canal; nor shall the total 
number of such vessels, at any one time, exceed six in all the territorial 
waters of the Canal Zone under the jurisdiction of the United States. 

"Rule 11. — When vessels of war or vessels falling under rule 2, be- 
longing to or employed by opposing belligerents, are present simulta- 
neously in the waters of the Canal Zone, a period of not less than 24 
hours must elapse between the departure of the vessel belonging to or 
employed by one belligerent and the departure of the vessel belonging 
to or employed by his adversary. 

"The order of departure is determined by order of arrival, unless the 
vessel which arrived first is so circumstanced that an extension of her 
stay is permissible. 

"A vessel of war of a belligerent or vessel falling "Under rule 2 may not 
leave the waters of the Canal Zone until 24 hours after the departure 
of a private vessel flying the flag of the adversary. 

"Rule 12.— A vessel of war of a belligerent or vessel falling under 
rule 2 which has left the waters of the Canal Zone, whether she has 
passed through the canal or not, shall, if she returns within a period of 
one week after her departure, lose all privileges of precedence in depar- 
ture from the Canal Zone, or in passage through the canal, over vessels 
flying the flag of her adversaries which may enter those waters after her 
return and before the expiration of one week subsequent to her previous 
departure. In any such case the time of departure of a vessel which 
has so returned shall be fixed by the canal authorities, who may in so 
doing consider the wishes of the commander of a public vessel or of the 



14 UNITED STATES NEUTRALITY PROCLAMATION-. 

master of a private vessel of the adversary of the returned vessel, which 
adversary's vessel is then present within the waters of the Canal Zone. 
•Rule 13. — The repair facilities and docks belonging to the United 
States and administered by the canal authorities shall not be used by 
a vessel of war of a belligerent, or vessels falling under rule 2, except 
when necessary in case of actual distress, and then only upon the order 
of the canal authorities, and only to the degree necessary to render the 
vessel seaworthy. Any work authorized shall be done with the least 
possible delay. 

"Rule 14. — The radio installation of any vessel of a belligerent 
power, public or private, or of any vessel falling under rule 2. shall be 
used only in connection with canal business to the exclusion of all other 
business while within the waters of the Canal Zone, including the wa- 
ters of Colon and Panama Harbors. 

"Rule 15.— Air craft of a belligerent power, public or private, are 
forbidden to descend or arise within the jurisdiction of the United States 
at the Canal Zone, or to pass through the air spaces above the lands and 
waters within said jurisdiction. 

''Rule 16. — For the purpose of these rules the Canal Zone includes 
the cities of Panama and Colon and the harbors adjacent to the said 
cities. " 

In witness whereof. I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Beal 
of the United States to be affixed. 

Done at the city of "Washington this 13th day of November in the 
year of our Lord, 1914, and of the independence of the United States the 
one hundred and thirty-ninth. 

[seal.] Woodrow Wilson. 

By the President: 

W. J. Bryan, 

Secretary of State. 

[No. 1287.] 

a. PROTOCOL OF AN AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND 

PANAMA. 

Protocol of an agreement concluded between Hon. Robert Lansing 
Acting Secretary of State of the United States, and Don Eusebio A. 
Morales, envoy extraordinary' and minister plenipotentiary of the Re- 
public of Panama, signed the 10th day of October, 1914. 

The undersigned, the Acting Secretary of State of the United States 
of America and the envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary 
of the Republic of Panama, in view of the close association of the in- 
terests of their respective Governments on the Isthmus of Panama, and 
to the end that these interests may be conserved and that, when a state 
of war exists, the neutral obligations of both Governments as neutrals 
may be maintained, after having conferred on the subject and being 
duly empowered by their respective Governments, have agreed: 

That hospitality extended in the waters of the Republic of Panama 
to a belligerent vessel of war or a vessel belligerent or neutral, whether 



AGREEMENT BETWEEN UNITED STATES AND PANAMA. 15 

armed or not, which is employed by a belligerent power as a transport 
or fleet auxiliary or in any other way for the direct purpose of prosecut- 
ing or aiding hostilities, whether by land or sea, shall serve to deprive 
such vessel of like hospitality in the Panama Canal Zone for a period of 
three months, and vice versa. 

In testimony whereof, the undersigned have signed and sealed the 
present protocol in the city of Washington, this 10th day of October, 
1914. 

Robert Lansing. [l. s.] 

Eusebio A. Morales, [l. s.] 



II. 

ENEMY VESSELS AT OUTBREAK OF WAR — DAYS OF GRACE. 

Interference before war. — The diplomatic correspond- 
ence between Great Britain and Germany seems to show 
that there was some interference with shipping even be- 
fore war was declared, though the reason given was "that 
mines were being laid and other precautions being taken." 1 

i No. ISO.— Sir Edward Grey to Sir E. Goschen. 
(Telegraphic.) 

London, Foreign Office, Aug. 1, 1914. 

We are informed that authorities at Hamburg have forcibly detained steamers belong- 
ing to the Great Central Co. and other British merchant ships. 

I can not ascertain on what grounds the detention of British ships has been ordered. 

You should request German Government to send immediate orders that they should 
be allowed to proceed without delay. The effect on public opinion here will be deplor- 
able unless this is done. His Majesty's Government, on their side, are most anxious to 
avoid any incident of an aggressive nature, and the German Government will, I hope, be 
equally careful not to take any step which would make the situation between us 
impossible. 

No. 143.— Sir E. Goschen to Sir Edward Grey. 
(Telegraphic. Received Aug. 2.) 

Berlin, Aug. 1,1914. 
Detention of British merchant ship at Hamburg. 

Your telegram of 1st August • acted on. 

Secretary of State, who expressed the greatest surprise and annoyance, has promised 

to send orders at once to allow steamers to proceed without delay. 

i See No. 130. 



No. 145. — Sir E. Goschen to Sir Edward Grey. 

(Telegraphic. Received August 2.) 

Berlin, Aug. 2, 1914. 

My telegram of Aug. I. 2 

Secretary of State informs me that orders were sent last night to allow British ships 
in Hamburg to proceed on their way. He says that this must be regarded as a special 
favor to His Majesty's Government, as no other foreign ships have been allowed to leave. 
Reason of detention was that mines were being laid and other precautions being taken. 

2 See No. 143. 

No. 149.— Sir Edward Grey to Sir E. Goschen. 
(Telegraphic.) 

London, Foreign Office, Aug. 2, 1914. 

Your telegram of 1st August. 3 

I regret to learn that 100 tons of sugar was compulsorily unloaded from the British 
steamship Sappho at Hamburg and detained. Similar action appears to have been taken 
with regard to other British vessels loaded with sugar. 

16 



REVIEW OF REGULATIONS. 17 

Review of regulations. — The British Orders in Council 
of August 4, 1914, referring to VI Hague Convention, 
1907, 1 showed a disposition to establish with Germany 

You should inform Secretary of State that, for reasons stated in my telegram of 1st 
August, 4 1 most earnestly trust that the orders already sent to Hamburg to allow the 
clearance of British ships cover also the release of their cargoes, the detention of which 
can not be justified. 

3 See No. 143. 

< See No. 130. 

No. 150.— Sir E. Goschen to Sir Edward Grey. 

(Telegraphic. Received August 3.) 

Berlin, Aug: 3, 1914. 
Your telegram of 2d August. 5 
Detention of British ships at Hamburg. 
No information available. 
& See No. 149. 



No. 156. — Sir Edward Grey to Sir E. Goschen. 

(Telegraphic.) 

London, Foreign Office, A ug. 4, 1914. 
I continue to receive numerous complaints from British firms as to the detention of 
their ships at Hamburg, Cuxhaven, and other German ports. This action on the part 
of the German authorities is totally unjustifiable. It is in direct contravention of inter- 
national law and of the assurances given to your Excellency by the Imperial Chancellor. 
You should demand the immediate release of all British ships if such release has not yet 
been given. 

1 Convention relative to the status of enemy merchant ships at the outbreak of hostilities. 

(The United States has not ratified this convention. The provisions are contained 
in articles 1, 2, 3, 4.) 

Article 1. 

When a merchant ship belonging to one of the belligerent powers is at the commence- 
ment of hostilities in an enemy port, it is desirable that it should be allowed to depart 
freely, either immediately, or after a reasonable number of days of grace, and to proceed, 
after being furnished with a pass, direct to its port of destination or any other port in- 
dicated. 

The same rule should apply in the case of a ship which has left its last port of departure 
before the commencement of the war and entered a port belonging to the enemy while 
still ignorant that hostilities had broken out. 

Article 2. 

A merchant ship unable, owing to circumstances of force majeure, to leave the enemy 
port within the period contemplated in the above article, or which was not allowed to 
leave, can not be confiscated. 

The belligerent may only detain it, without payment of compensation, but subject 
to the obligation of restoring it after the war, or requisition it on payment of compensa- 
tion. 

Article 3. 

Enemy merchant ships which left their last port of departure before the commence- 
ment of the war, and are encountered en the high seas while still ignorant of the outbreak 
of hostilities can not be confiscated. They are only liable to detention on the under- 
standing that they shall be restored after the war without compensation, or to be requi- 
sitioned, or even destroyed, on payment of compensation, but in such case provision 

23057—16 2 



18 DAYS OF GRACE. 

by reciprocal agreement ten "days of grace" (p. 19). 
The correspondence seems to indicate a willingness on 
the part of both belligerents to adopt this period but 
through a misunderstanding this was not adopted (p. 22). 

"With Austria-Hungary, however, a satisfactory agree- 
ment was made by Great Britain and ten days were 
allowed from the declaration of hostilities (p. 23). 

Great Britain, considering that Turkey was not a 
party to the Hague Convention relative to the Status of 
Enemy Merchant Vessels at the Outbreak of War did not 
extend to Turkish vessels the advantages of the order 
in council of August 4, 1914 (p. 24 note). 

The same position was assumed by Great Britain in 
regard to Bulgaria (p. 25). 

The declaration of war between Germany and France, 
August 3, 1914, contained a proposal for a reciprocal 
agreement in regard to days of grace (p. 26). These two 
States allowed a seven-days period of grace (p. 26). 

France and Austria reached a similar reciprocal 
agreement (p. 27). 

Italy decreed the sequestration of enemy merchant 
vessels unless apparently intended for conversion into 
vessels of war. Vessels of the latter class w^ere to be 
captured and placed in the prize court (p. 27). The 
proceeds of sale or use of vessels which had been seques- 
trated might be used to pay indemnity in case the enemy 
acted contrary to "the principles of the rights of war 
generally recognized and admitted" (p. 31). 

Naval War College proposal, 1906. — In general the 
principle of reciprocity has received approval since 
July, 1914, and the practice in many instances has been 
similar to that proposed by the United States Naval 
War College in 1906 in the following words: 

1. Each State entering upon a war shall announce a date before 
which enemy vessels bound for or within its ports at the outbreak of 



must be made for the safety of the persons on board as well as the security of the ship's 
papers. 

After touching at a port in their own coun try or at a neutral port, these ships are subject 
to the laws and customs of maritime war. 

Article 4. 

Enemy cargo on board the vessels referred to in articles 1 and 2 is likewise liable to be 
detained and restored after the termination of the war without payment of compensa- 
tion, or to be requisitioned on payment of compensation, with or without the ship. 

The same rule applies in the case of cargo on board the vessels referred to in article 3. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY. 19 

war shall under ordinary conditions be allowed to enter, to discharge 
cargo, to load cargo, and to depart, without liability to capture while 
sailing directly to a peimitted destination. If one belligerent State 
allows a shorter period than the other, the other State may, as a matter 
of light, reduce its period to correspond therewith. 

2. Each belligeient State may make such regulations in regard to 
sojourn, conduct, cargo, destination, and movements after departure 
of the innocent enemy vessels as may be deemed necessary to protect 
its military interests. 

3. A private vessel suitable for warlike use, belonging to one belliger- 
ent and bound for or within the port of the other belligerent at the 
outbreak of war, is liable to be detained unless the Government of 
the vessel's flag makes a satisfactory agreement that it shall not be put 
to any warlike use, in which case it may be accorded the same treat- 
ment as innocent enemy vessels. (International Law Topics and Dis- 
cussions, 1906, p. 46.) 

Recent action on days of grace is shown below: 

GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY. 

Order in council relating to the detention of German ships in British ports 
or in any ports of any native State in India, or in any of His Majesty's 
protectorates, or in any State under His Majesty's protection or in 
Cyprus. 1 

1914. No. 1248. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 4th day of August, 1914. 

Present: The King's Most Excellent Majesty in council. 

His Majecty being mindful, now that a state of war exists between 
this country and Germany, of the recognition accorded to the practice 
of granting "days of grace" to enemy merchant ships by the conven- 
tion relative to the status of enemy merchant ships at the outbreak of 
hostilities, signed at The Hague on the 18th October, 1907, and being 
desirous of lessening, so far as may be practicable, the injury caused 
by war to peaceful and unsuspecting commerce, is pleased, by and 
with the advice of his privy council, to order, and it is hereby ordered 
as follows: 

1. From and after the publication of this order no enemy merchant 
ship shall be allowed to depart, except in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this order, from any British port or from any ports in any 
native State in India, or any of His Majesty's protectorates, or in any 
State under His Majesty's protection or in Cyprus. 

2. In the event of one of His Majesty's principal secretaries of state 
being satisfied by information reaching him not later than midnight 
on Friday, the 7th day of August that the treatment accorded to 
British merchant ships and their cargoes which at the date of the 
outbreak of hostilities were in the ports of the enemy or which sub- 
sequently entered them is not less favorable than the treatment ac- 

1 A similar order in council was issued by the Canadian Government on August 5, 
1914, as regards Germany, and on August 14, 1914, as regards Austria-Hungary. 



20 DAYS OF GRACE. 

corded to enemy merchant ships by articles 3 to 7 of this order, he 
shall notify the lords commissioners of His Majesty's treasury and the 
lords commissioners of the Admiralty accordingly, and public notice 
thereof shall forthwith be given in the London Gazette, and articles 
3 to 8 of this order shall thereupon come into full force and effect. 

3. Subject to the provisions of this order, enemy merchant ships 
which 

"(1) At the date of the outbreak of hostilities were in any port in 
which this order applies; or 

"(2) Cleared from their last port before the declaration of war, and 
after the outbreak of hostilities, enter a port to which this order applies, 
with no knowledge of the war: " 

shall be allowed up till midnight (Greenwich mean time) on Friday, 
the 14th day of August, -for loading or unloading their cargoes, and for 
departing from such port: 

Provided, That such vessels shall not be allowed to ship any con- 
traband of war, and any contraband of war already shipped on such 
vessels must be discharged. 

4. Enemy merchant ships which cleared from their last port before 
the declaration of war, and which with no knowledge of the war arrive 
at a port to which this order applies after the expiry of the time allowed 
by article 3 for loading or unloading cargo and for departing, and are 
permitted to enter, may be required to depart either immediately, or 
within such time as may be considered necessary by the customs officer 
of the port for the unloading of such cargo as they may be required or 
specially permitted to discharge. 

Provided, That such vessels may, as a condition of being allowed to 
discharge cargo, be required to proceed to any other specified British 
port, and shall there be allowed such time for discharge as the customs 
officer of that port may consider to be necessary. 

Provided also, That, if any cargo on board such vessel is contraband 
of war or is requisitioned under article 5 of this order, she may be re- 
quired before the departure to discharge such cargo within such time 
as the customs officer of the port may consider to be necessary; or she 
may be required to proceed, if necessary under escort, to any other 
of the ports specified in article 1 of this order, and shall there discharge 
the contraband under the like conditions. 

5. His Majesty reserves the right recognized by the said convention 
to requisition at any time subject to payment of compensation enemy 
cargo on board any vessel to which articles 3 and 4 of the order apply. 

6. The privileges accorded by articles 3 and 4 are not to extend to 
cable ships, or to seagoing ships designed to carry oil fuel, or to ships 
whose tonnage exceeds 5,000 tons gross, or whose speed is 14 knots or 
over, regarding which the entries in Lloyd's Register shall be con- 
clusive for the purposes of this article. Such vessels will remain 
liable on adjudication by the prize court to detention during the period 
of the war, or to requisition, in accordance, in either case, with the 
convention aforesaid. The said privileges will also not extend to 
merchant ships which show by their build that they are intended for 



GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY. 21 

conversion into warships, as such vessels are outside the scope of the 
said convention, and are liable on adjudication by the prize court to 
condemnation as prize. 

7. Enemy merchant ships allowed to depart under articles 3 and 4 
will be provided with a pass indicating the port to which they are to 
proceed, and the route they are to follow. 

8. A merchant ship which, after receipt of such a pass, does not 
follow the course indicated therein will be liable to capture. 

9. If no information reaches one of His Majesty's principal secre- 
taries of state by the day and hour aforementioned to the effect that 
the treatment accorded to British merchant ships and their cargoes 
which were in the ports of the enemy at the date of the outbreak of 
hostilities, or -\ hich subsequently entered them, is, in his opinion, 
not less favorable than that accorded to enemy merchant ships by 
articles 3 to 8 of this order, every enemy merchant ship which, on the 
outbreak of hostilities, was in any port to which this order applies, 
and also' every enemy merchant ship which cleared from its last port 
before the declaration of v ar, but which, with no knowledge of the 
war enters a port to -\ hich this order applies, shall, together t ith the 
cargo on board thereof, be liable to capture, and shall be brought before 
the prize court forth ith for adjudication. 

10. In the event of information reaching one of His Majesty's prin- 
cipal secretaries of state that British merchant ships which cleared 
from their last port before the declaration of war, but are met t ith by 
the enemy at sea after the outbreak of hostilities, are allowed to con- 
tinue their voyage without interference with either the ship or the 
cargo, or after capture are released with or vithout proceedings for 
adjudication in the prize court, or are to be detained during the war 
or requisitioned in lieu of condemnation as prize, he shall notify the 
lords commissioners of the Admiralty accordingly, and shall publish 
a notification thereof in the London Gazette, and in that event, but 
not otherwise, enemy merchant ships which cleared from their last 
port before the declaration of war, and are captured after the out- 
break of hostilities and brought before the prize courts for adjudica- 
tion, shall be released or detained or requisitioned in such cases and 
upon such terms as may be directed in the said notification in the 
London Gazette. 

11. Neutral cargo, other than contraband of war, on board an enemy 
merchant ship which is not allowed to depart from a port to which 
this order applies, shall be released. 

12. In accordance with the provisions of Chapter III of the conven- 
tion relative to certain restrictions on the exercise of the right of cap- 
ture in maritime war, signed at The Hague on the 18th October, 1907, 
an undertaking must, whether the merchant ship is allowed to depart 
or not, be given in writing by each of the officers and members of the 
ere v of such vessel, who is of enemy nationality, that he will not, 
after the conclusion of the voyage for which the pass is issued, engage 
while hostilities last in any service connected w ith the operation of 
the war. If any such officer is of neutral nationality, an undertaking 



22 DAYS OF GRACE. 

must be given in Kilting that he will not serve, after the conclusion 
of the voyage for which the pass is issued, on any enemy ship while 
hostilities last. No undertaking is to be recpuired from members of 
the ere »* who are of neutral nationality. 

Officers or members of the cre.v declining to give the undertakings 
required by this article v ill be detained as prisoners of war. 

And the lords commissioners of His Majesty's treasury, the lords 
commissioners of the Admiralty, and each of His Majesty's principal 
secretaries of state, and all governors, officers, and authorities whom 
it may concern are to give the necessary directions herein as to them 
may respectively appertain. 

Almeric FitzRoy. 



Notification of the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs as to the treat- 
ment accorded to British merchant ships and their cargoes in German ports. 

On the night of August 4, 1914, the Secretary of State received the 
following notice from the German ambassador: 

"The Imperial Government will keep merchant vessels flying the 
British flag interned in German harbors, but will liberate them if the 
Imperial Government receive a counter undertaking from the British 
Government within forty-eight hours." 

On August 5 a copy of the order in council issued on August 4 as to 
the treatment of enemy merchant vessels in British ports at the date 
of the outbreak of hostilities was communicated to the ambassador of 
the United States in London, who was then in charge of German 
interests in this country, with a request that he would be so good as to 
cause inquiry to be made of the German Government as to whether 
the terms of articles 3 to 8 of the order in council constituted an under- 
taking of the nature the German Government required, and under 
which they would liberate merchant vessels flying the British flag 
interned in German harbors. 

On August 7 a communication was received from the United States 
embassy that the United States minister at Stockholm had sent the 
following telegram signed by the United States ambassador at Berlin: 

"Please state if England has issued proclamation that she gives per- 
mission to enemy ships to leave British ports until midnight, August 
14. If this is so, Germany will issue corresponding orders. Reply 
through German legation, Stockholm." 

The United States embassy added that they did not believe that 
this telegram was a reply to the message which had been transmitted to 
Berlin. 

On inquiry at the United States embassy shortly before midnight it 
wa> ascertained that no further communication had been received 
from Berlin. 

The secretary of state for foreign affairs has therefore no information 
as to the treatment accorded to British merchant ships and their 
cargoes in German ports, and has accordingly addressed the under- 
mentioned notification to the lords commissioners of the treasury and to 
the lords commissioners of the Admiralty. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND AUSTRIA. 23 

Foreign Office, S. W., 

Midnight, August 7, 1914. 
My Lords: I have the honor to state that no information has reached 
me that the treatment accorded to British merchant ships and their 
cargoes which were in German ports at the date of the outbreak of 
hostilities or which subsequently entered them is not less favorable 
than that accorded to enemy merchant ships by articles 3 to 8 of the 
order in council issued on the 4th day of August, 1914, with reference 
to enemy ships being in British ports at the outbreak of hostilities or 
subsequently entering them. Articles 3 to 8 of the said order in council 
will therefore not come into operation. 
I have the honor to be, my lords, 

Your lordships' most obedient, humble servant, 

(Signed) E. Grey. 

(British Manual of Emergency Legislation, 1914, p. 138.) 



GREAT BRITAIN AND AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

Notification of the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs as to the treatment 
accorded to British merchant ships and their cargoes in Austro-Hun- 
garian ports. 

The secretary of state for foreign affairs has received information of 
a nature to satisfy him that the treatment accorded to British merchant 
ships and their cargoes in Austro-Hungarian ports is not less favorable 
than that accorded to Austro-Hungarian merchant ships and their car- 
goes in British ports, and he has accordingly addressed the undermen- 
tioned notification to the lords commissioners of the treasury and to the 
lords commissioners of the admiralty. 

Foreign Office, S. W., 

August 15, 1914- 

My Lords: I have the honor to state that information has reached 
me of a nature to satisfy me that the treatment accorded to British mer- 
chant ships and their cargoes which were in Austro-Hungarian ports at 
the date of the outbreak of hostilities, or which subsequently entered 
them, is not less favorable than that accorded by articles 3 to 8 of the 
order in council issued on the 4th day of August, 1914, with reference 
to enemy ships being in British ports at the outbreak of hostilities or 
subsequently entering them, which was extended so as to apply to 
Austro-Hungarian merchant ships by His Majesty's proclamation 
issued on the ]2th day of August, 1914. 

Articles 3 to 8 of the said order in council, as extended by the procla- 
mation dated the 12th August, 1914, will therefore come into full force 
and effect with regard to Austro-Hungarian merchant ships. 

I have the honor to be, my lords, 

Your lordships' most obedient, humble servant, 

(Signed) E. Grey. 

(British Manual of Emergency Legislation, 1914, p. 142.) 



24 DAYS OF GRACE. 

By the royal proclamation of August 12, 1914, it was 
declared: 

3. (1) In the order in council issued with reference to the departure 
from our ports ol enemy vessels, which at the outbreak of hostilities 
were in any such port or which subsequently entered tti3 same, the 
word " enemy," as applied to either ships or cargo, shall be deemed as 
from this date to include Austro-Hungarian ships or cargo. 

(2) In the application of this article to Austro-Hungarian ships the 
date Saturday, the 15th day of August, shall be substituted for the date 
mentioned in article 2 of the said order in council, and the date Satur- 
day, the 22d day of August, shall be substituted for the date mentioned 
in article 3 of the said order in council. (Ibid, p. 98.) 



GREAT BRITAIN AND BULGARIA. 

By the King. 

A proclamation extending to the war with Bulgaria the proclamations and 
orders in council now in force relating to the war. 

George R. I. 

"Whereas owing to the King of the Bulgarians, an ally of the central 
powers, being naw in a state of war with the King of Serbia, our ally, a 
state of war now exists between us and the King of the Bulgarians; 

And whereas on the 4th day of August, 1914, a state of war came into 
existence between us and the German Emperor; 

And whereas we did on the same date and en certain other dates 
subsequent thereto issue certain proclamations and orders in council 
connected with such state of war; 

And whereas on the 12th day of August, 1914, a state of war came 
into existence between us and the Emperor of Austria, King of 
Hungary; 

And whereas certain of the aforesaid proclamations and orders in 
council have since been extended so as to cover the state of war be- 
tween us and the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary; 

And whereas on the 5th day of November, 1914, a state of war came 
into existence between us and the Sultan of Turkey; 

And whereas certain of the aforesaid proclamations and orders in 
council have since been extended so as to cover the state of war 
between us and the Sultan of Turkey; 1 

And whereas we have since the said 5th day of November, 1914, 
issued certain other proclamations and orders in council with reference 

1 By the royal proclamation of Nov\ 5, 1914, it was declared among other matters 
that— 

"Whereas the convention relating to the status of enemy merchant vessels at the 
outbreak of hostilities signed at The Hague on the 18th October, 1907, has not been rati- 
fied by the Sultan of Turkey, and therefore we do not think fit to extend to Turkish 
ships the order in council issued the 4th day of August, 1914, with reference to departure 
from our ports of enemy vessels, which at the outbreak of hostilities were in any such 
port or which su jsequently entered the same," etc. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND BULGARIA. 25 

to the state of war between us and the German Emperor, the Emperor 
of Austria, King of Hungary, and the Sultan of Turkey; 

And whereas it is desirable now to provide for the state of war between 
us and the King of the Bulgarians; 

And whereas the convention relating to the status of enemy merchant 
vessels at the outbreak of hostilities, signed at The Hague on the 18th 
day of October, 1907, has not been ratified by the King of the Bul- 
garians, and therefore we do not think fit to extend to Bulgarian ships 
the order in council issued on the 4th day of August, 1914, with refer- 
ence to the departure from our ports of enemy vessels, which at the 
outbreak of hostilities were in any such port or which subsequently 
entered the same: 

Now, therefore, we have thought fit, by and with the advice of our 
privy council, to issue this our royal proclamation declaring, and it is 
hereby declared, as follows: 

1. The proclamations and orders in council issued with reference 
to the state of war between us and the German Emperor, or with refer- 
ence to the state of war between us and the German Emperor and the 
Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, or with reference to the state 
of war between us and the German Emperor, the Emperor of Austria, 
King of Hungary, and the Sultan of Turkey, other than the order in 
council issued on the 4th day of August, 1914, with reference to the 
departure from our ports of enemy vessels, which at the outbreak of 
hostilities were in any such ports, or which subsequently entered the 
same, shall, if still in force, apply to the state of war between us and the 
King of the Bulgarians as from this 16th day of October, 1915. 

2. The proclamation issued on the 5th day of August, 1914, warning 
all our subjects, and all persons resident or being in our dominions, 
from contributing to or participating in, or assisting in the floating of 
any loan raised on behalf of the German Government, or from advancing 
money to or entering into any contract or dealings whatsoever with the 
said Government, or otherwise aiding, abetting, or assisting the said 
Government, shall be deemed as from this 16th day of October, 1915, 
to apply to all loans raised on behalf of, or contracts or dealings entered 
into with, or to aiding, abetting, or assisting the Bulgarian Government. 

3. The words "enemy country" in any of the proclamations or 
oidcrs in council referred to in article 1 of this proclamation shall 
include the dominions of the King of the Bulgarians, and the words 
"persons of enemy nationality" in any of the said proclamations or 
orders in council shall include subjects of the King of the Bulgarians. 

Given at our court at Buckingham Palace, this 16th day of October, 
in the year of our Lord 1915, and in the sixth year of our reign. 
God save the King. 
(London Gazette, Supplement, Oct. 15, 1915.) 



26 DAYS OF GRACE. 

GERMANY AND FRANCE. 

DECLARATION DE GUERRE DE l'aLLEMAGN'E A LA FRANCE DU 3 AO0T 

1914. 

Lettre de M. Schoen, ambassadeur d'Allemagne en France, a M. Rene 
Viviani, president du conseil des ministres, ministre des affaires Stran- 
ge res. 

"Monsieur le President: 

"Los autorites administratives et militaires allemandes ont constat «' 
un certain nombre d'actes d'hostilite caracterisee commis sur terri- 
toire allemand par des aviateura franeais. Plusieurs de ces derniers 
ont manifestement viole la neutrality de la Belgique survolant le terri- 
toire de ce pays. L'un a essaye de detruire des constructions pres de 
Wesel, d'autres ont ete aperciis sur la region de 1' Eiffel, un autre a 
jete des bombes sur le chemin de fer pres de Karlsruhe et de Nurem- 
berg. 

"Je suis charge et j'ai l'honneur de faire connaitre a Votre Excellence 
qu'en presence de ces agressions, Y Empire allemand se considere en 
etat de guerre avec la France du fait de cette derniere puissance. 

"J'ai en meme temps l'honneur de porter a la connaissance de Votre 
Excellence que les autorites allemandes retiendront les na vires niar- 
chands franeais dans des ports allemands, mais qu'elles les relacheront 
si, dans lea quarante-huit heures, la reciprocity complete est assuree. 
"Ma mission diplomatique ayant ainsi pris fin, il ne me reste plus 
qu'a prier Votre Excellence de vouloir bien me munir de mes passe- 
ports et de prendre les mesures qu'elle jugerait utiles pour assurer mon 
ret our en Allemagne avec le personnel de l'ambassade ainsi qu'avec 
le personnel de la legation de Baviere et du consulat general d'Alle- 
magne a Paris. 

"Veuillez agreer, Monsieur le President, l'expression de ma tres 

haute consideration. 

"Signe: Schoen.'' 

Decret du 4 aout 1914 relatif aux navires de commerce allemands se 
trovant actuellement dans les ports franeais. 

Art. 1. Les navires de commerce allemands se trouvant actuelle- 
ment dans les ports franeais depuis et y compris le 3 aout 1914, a dix- 
huit heures quarante-cinq minutes, ou y entrant sans connaitre lea 
hostilites, auront, a partir de la date du present decret, un delai de 
sept jours francs pour en sortir librement, et gagner directement, apres 
avoir ete munis d'un laissez-passer, leur port de destination ou tel 
autre port qui leur sera designe par les autorites maritimes du port 
franeais ou ils se trouvent. 

Par suite de la reserve faite par le gouvernement allemand aux 
articles 3 et 4, alinea 2, de la convention VI de la Have de 1907, le 
benefice de la disposition precedente ne s' applique pas aux navires 
allemands qui ont quitte leur dernier port de depart avant le 3 aout 
1914. a dix-huit heures quarante-cinq minutes, et qui sont rencontres 
en mer, ignorant les hostilitc^s. 



FRANCE AND AUSTRIA. 27 

Art. 2. Ne beneficieront pas de la faveur accordee par Particle l er 
tous navires dont la construction, l'armement ou l'affectation indique- 
ront qu'ils sont susceptibles d'etre transformes en batiments de guerre 
ou affectes a un service public. 

Dans le cas ou ces navires seraient charges d'un service postal, Tad- 
ministration des postes pourvoira a l'expedition, par la vote la plus 
rapide, des sacs et colis postaux embarques sur lesdits navires. 

Art. 3. Les ministres des affaires etrangeres, de la marine, des travaux 
publics, du commerce, des postes es des telegraphes et des colonies sont 
charges, etc. (Journ. off. du 6 aout 1914.) 



FRANCE AND AUSTRIA. 

Decret du 13 aout 1914 relatif aux navires de commerce autrichiens ou 

hongrois se trouvant dans les ports frangais depuis et y compris le 12 aout 

1914. 

Art. 1. Les navires de commerce autrichiens ou hongrois se trouvant 
actuellement dans les port francais depuis et y compris le 12 aout 1914, 
minuit, ou y entrant sans connaitre les hostilites, auront a partir de la 
date du present decret, un delai de sept jours francs pour en sortir libre- 
ment et gagner directement, apres avoir ete munis d'un laissez-passer, 
leur port de destination ou tel autre port qui leur sera designe par les 
autorites maritimes du port francais ou ils se trouvent. 

Art. 2. Ne beneficieront pas de la faveur accordee par Particle l er 
tous navires dont la construction, l'armement ou l'affectation indique- 
ront qu'ils sont susceptibles d'etre transformes en batiments de guerre 
ou affectes a un service public, non plus que ceux qui se trouveraient 
actuellement saisis ou captures pour violation de neutrality . 

Dans le cas ou ces navires seraient charges d'un service postal, l'ad- 
ministration des postes pourvoira a l'expedition, par la voie la plus 
rapide, des sacs et colis postaux embarques sur lesdits navires. 

Art. 3. Les ministres des affaires etrangeres, de la marine, des travaux 
publics, du commerce, des postes et des telegraphes et des colonies sont 
charges, etc. (Journ. off. du 14 aout 1914.) 

ITALY AND AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

ROYAL DECREE OF MAY 30, 1915 (NO. 814). 
[Translation.] 

Thomas of Savoy, Duke of Genoa, Lieutenant-General of His Majesty 
Victor Emanuel III, by the Grace of God and the will of the Nation, 
King of Italy . 

In virtue of the authority delegated to us; 

Whereas the royal decree of the 16th May, 1915, No. 659, suspends 
the application of articles 211 and 243 of the mercantile marine code 
in the event of the participation of Italy in the present international 
conflict; 



28 DAYS OF GRACE. 

Having regard to the Sixth and Eleventh Convention signed at The 
Hague, on the 18th October, 1907. which Italy declares she will observe 
so far as the laws in force in the Kingdom and the other measures taken 
by the Government of the King permit; 

Whereas a state of war exists: 

In virtue of the extraordinary powers conferred on the Government 
of the King by the law of the 22d May, 1915, No. 671; 

The council of ministers having been consulted; 

On the motion of the minister of marine, acting in concert with 
the ministers for foreign affairs, of the colonies, and of finance; 

We have decreed and decree: 

Article 1. All enemy ships lying in the ports and territorial waters 
of the kingdom and of its colonies at the outbreak of hostilities shall 
be sequestered by the local naval authorities. 

Art. 2. Special technical commissions, assisted by the naval authori- 
ties, shall visit enemy merchant ships thus sequestered, with the 
object of ascertaining which among them are so constructed or built, 
or contain such internal arrangements or fittings, as may justify the 
assumption that they are intended to be converted eventually into 
warships. 

Art. 3. In all cases in which it shall be found that vessels were 
intended for conversion into warships, these vessels shall be captured 
and placed under the jurisdiction of the prize court for a decision as to 
their ultimate disposal. 

Art. 4. The vessels which shall not be found to have been intended 
for conversion into warships shall remain under sequestration. They 
may be requisitioned by the minister of marine for the whole duration 
of the present war, in accordance with rules to be laid down in another 
decree. 

Art. 5. Enemy goods found on board all merchant vessels referred 
to in article 1 above mentioned shall be sequestered and restored after 
the war, without an indemnity, or else requisitioned with an indem- 
nity. 

Perishable goods shall be sold on special conditions which shall be 
laid down by our ministry of marine. 

Art. 6. Neutral goods found on board any merchant ship referred 
to under article 1 shall be released subject to an option of requisitioning 
them with an indemnity which the Government of the King may 
exercise. 1 

Art. 7. The decision as to the nationality of the goods referred to 
under the preceding articles 5 and 6, and the consequent verdict as 

1 Foreign ofiict notification , August 9, 1915, as to British-owned cargo in Austrian vessels 

detained in Italy. 

His Majesty's ambassador at Rome is informed by the Italian Government that in 
order to obtain release of British- owned goods on Austrian vessels detained in Italy the 
interested parties should pr?sent th?ir applications for release of sucn goods direct to 
the Italian minister of marine, together with all documents available in support of their 
claim to ownership. The minister of marine will then determine which goods can be 
released without further formalities, and which it will be necessary to submit to the 
decision of the Italian prize court. (London Gazette, Aug. 10, 1915.) 



ITALY A^D AUSTRIA. 29 

to the release or sequestration of these goods shall lie with the prize 
court. 

Art. 8. The regulations laid down in articles 5 and 6 of the Eleventh 
Hague Convention of the 18th October, 1907, shall be applicable to 
the members of the crews on enemy merchant vessels referred to in 
the preceding article 1. 

Art. 9. The treatment laid down in the preceding articles shall not 
be extended to enemy merchant ships, which shall carry out or attempt 
to carry out any acts of hostility whether direct or indirect. 

Art. 10. The rules laid down in the preceding articles are also appli- 
cable to those enemy merchant ships which shall have left their last 
port before the declaration of war, and which are met at sea before 
they are aware of the commencement of hostilities. 

Art. 11. The minister of marine is empowered to issue special rules 
for the publication of the present decree which comes into force to-day. 

We order that the present decree, furnished with the seal of state, 
be included in the official record of the laws and decrees of the King- 
dom of Italy, requiring everyone concerned to observe it and cause it 
to be observed. 

Given at Rome this 30th day of May, 1915. 

Thomas of Savoy. 

(British Parliamentary Papers, Miscellaneous, No. 18 (1915). Cd. 
8104.) 

ROYAL DECREE OF JUXE 17, 1915 (NO. 957). 
[Translation.] 

Special regulations for the application of the decree of 30th May, 1915; 
No. 814, relating to the treatment of enemy merchant vessels in ports 
of the Kingdom or of the colonies. 

Thomas of Savoy, Duke of Genoa, lieutenant general of His Majesty 
Victor Emanuel III, by the Grace of God and the will of the Nation, 
King of Italy. 

In virtue of the authority delegated to us; 

In view of the law of the 22d May, 1915, No. 671, that confers extra- 
ordinary powers on the Government of the King; 

In view of our decree, dated the 30th May, 1915, No. 814, which lays 
■down rules for the treatment of enemy merchant vessels lying in the 
ports of the Kingdom and the colonies; 

At the proposal of the ministry of marine, in concert with the minis- 
tries for foreign affairs and the colonies; 

We have decreed and do decree: 

Art. 1. Enemy merchant vessels present in the ports and territorial 
waters of the Kingdom at the outbreak of hostilities, and sequestrated 
by the local maritime authorities in accordance with article 1 of our 
decree of the 30th May, 1915, No. 814, are inscribed on a provisional 
register at the maritime department of Genoa, and are authorized to 



30 DAYS OF GRACE. 

use the national flag and to navigate conformably to the regulations 
established in the following articles: 

Art. 2. Vessels captured in virtue of article 3 of our decree of the 
30th May, 1915, No. S14. are placed at the disposal of the ministry of 
marine, who may arm and man them, and employ them in the service 
of the Royal Government pending the final judgment of the prize 
court. 

Art. 3. Vessels sequestrated in conformity with article 4 of our 
decree of the 30th May, 1915. Xo. 814, may be requisitioned by the 
ministry of marine for the whole period of hostilities, either to be 
armed and manned by the royal navy, or to be handed over .to the 
sen-ice of some other State administration or public body, or again 
to a navigation company acting under authority of the above-men- 
tioned ministry. 

The service of vessels indicated in the present article shall be regu- 
lated by the rules governing the national mercantile marine, except 
when such vessels shall have transformed into ships of war. 

Art. 4. A special commission formed by the ministry of marine, 
presided over by the director general of the mercantile marine, and 
composed of a superior naval officer, of a superior official of the central 
administration of the mercantile marine, and a captain of the port, 
will lay down the conditions under which the use of vessels referred 
to in article 3 will be conceded to such administrations, corporations, 
or societies as may apply for them and may be duly authorized to 
employ them. 

Art. 5. The payment of a monthly rate for charter corresponding 
to the commercial interest on the real value of the vessel at the time 
of its requisition shall be included among the conditions attached to 
the chartering of the vessels in question. 

The cost of any important or minor repairs that may be necessary 
to enable the ship to go to sea shall be deducted from the monthly 
rate referred to in the previous paragraph. 

On the other hand, the charges of upkeep and all other expenses 
entailed by the running of the vessel shall be defrayed by the adminis- 
trations, corporations, or societies who have taken it over. 

Art. 6. The monthly rates to be paid for charter as conditioned by 
the preceding article, and minus the deductions provided for in the 
same, shall be paid into a special and separate fund, to the credit of 
the parties entitled thereto at the caisse of deposits for seamen in the 
maritime department of Genoa. 

At the end of hostilities the fund will be liquidated in favor of those 
entitled, in accordance with our dispositions to follow. 

We order that the present decree, furnished with the seal of state, 
be included in the official record of the laws and decrees of the King- 
dom of Italy, requiring everyone concerned to observe it and cause it 
to be observed . 

Given at Rome this 17th day of June, 1915. 

Thomas of Savoy. 

(British Parliamentary Papers, Miscellaneous, No. 18 (1915) 
Cd. 8104.) 



SEQUESTRATION AND INDEMNITY. 31 

ROYAL DECREE OF JUNE 24, 1915 (NO. 1014). 
[Translation.] 

Thomas of Savoy, Duke of Genoa, lieutenant general of His Majesty 
Victor Emanuel III, by the grace of God and the will of the nation, 
King of Italy. 

In virtue of the authority delegated to us; 

Whereas the royal decree of the 16th May, No. 659, suspends the 
application of article 243 of the mercantile marine code during the 
present international conflict; 

Whereas our decree of the 30th May, 1915, No. 814, in substitution 
of article 243 of the mercantile marine code, lays down rules for the 
treatment of enemy merchant vessels in the territorial waters of the 
Kingdom and of the colonies on the outbreak of hostilities; 

Whereas our decree of the 17th June, 1915, No. 957, in pursuance of 
the above-mentioned decree of the 30th May, 1915, No. 814, lays down 
rules for the use of enemy merchant vessels sequestrated in the ports 
of the Kingdom and of the colonies; 

Having regard to article 244 of the mercantile marine code; * 

In virtue of the extraordinary powers conferred on the Government 
of the King by the law of the 22d May, 1915, No. 671; 

The council of ministers having been consulted ; 

On the motion of the minister of marine, acting in concert with the 
president of the council of ministers, the minister of the interior, and 
with the ministers for foreign affairs, of the colonies, and of grace and 
justice, and worship; 

We have decreed and decree: 

Article 1. If the enemy causes damage to the lives or goods of 
Italian subjects or citizens by bombarding undefended towns, ports, 
villages, houses, or other buildings, by destroying unarmed merchant- 
men, or by committing any hostile acts which are contrary to the 
principles of the rights of war generally recognized and admitted, the 
Government of the King are authorized to order the appropriation of 
the sum required to indemnify Italian subjects or citizens, or their 
representatives, who have suffered damage from the enemy, from the 
fund which has been established by the Caisse of Deposits for seamen 
in the maritime department of Genoa in accordance with the terms of 
article 6 of our decree of the 17th June, 1915, No. 957. 

Art. 2. If the fund established in virtue of article 6 of our decree of 
the 17th June, 1915, No. 957, should not prove sufficient to indemnify 
those who have suffered damage in the sense indicated in the preceding 
article 1, those enemy merchant ships in regard to which the provision 

i Article 244 is as follows (translation): "Vessels sequestrated as indicated above and 
merchandise loaded on the same which are of enemy property may, according to cir- 
cumstances, be detained until the conclusion of hostilities or else declared to be good 
prize. 

"In that case the proceeds will go to indemnify, pro rata of the respective interests 
involved, Italian subjects who have suffered injury from the enemy, subject to the 
observance of the rules and procedure established above, both in regard to judgment 
as to the legitimacy of the prize and in the liquidation connected therewith." 



32 DAYS OF GRACE. 

of sequestration has been enacted in accordance with the terms of article 
4 of our decree of the 30th May, 1915, No. 814, may be declared good 
prize and confiscated. 

Similar treatment may be accorded to such enemy goods as have 
been found on board all enemy merchant ships sequestrated in ports 
of the Kingdom and of its colonies at the outbreak of hostilities, for 
which the provision of sequestration was established in article 5 of our 
decree of the 30th May, 1915, No. 814. 

Art. 3. Decisions as to the legitimacy of prizes \ hich may be de- 
clared under the terms of the preceding article 2. as \ ell as the disposal 
of the sums obtained from their seizure and the distribution of the 
fund mentioned in the preceding article 1, will be taken by the prize 
court, v hich will be guided by the rules and procedure established 
in the mercantile marine code, and by the regulations dra n up for the 
court itself. 

Art. 4. If the prize court ascertains that the sums composing the 
fund mentioned in article 1. or the ships or goods declared to be good 
prize and confiscated in accordance - ith the terms of article 2. belong 
to individuals of Italian nationality but natives of regions ^ hich are 
under the dominions of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the prize court 
may suspend the acts of distribution of such sums or of the sums obtain- 
able from the sale of such ships or goods, and inform the Government of 
the King of the facts ascertained: the Government of the King may 
then, after the council of ministers has considered the matter, proceed 
to liberate the sums, ships, and goods belonging to the above-mentioned 
individuals, or may invite the prize court to continue the action and 
procedure provided for in the preceding articles. 

Art. 5. Subsequent dispositions 1 \ ill be issued establishing the 
mode of procedure for the application of articles 1 and 2 of the present 
decree. 

We order that the present decree, furnished with the seal of state, be 
included in the official record of the la s and decrees of the Kingdom 
of Italy, requiring everyone concerned to observe it and cause it to be 
observed. 

Given at Rome thi^ 24th day of June. 1915. 

Thomas of Savoy. 

[British Parliamentary Papers. Miscellaneous. No. IS (1915). Cd. 
8104.] 

1 These have not yet been published (November, 1915). 



III. 

PROHIBITION OF EXPORTS FROM NEUTRAL STATES. 

General statement. — Since July, 1914, the belligerents 
have resorted to various measures to prevent the free 
movement of goods. In order that neutrals might not 
be cut off from certain supplies it has been deemed advis- 
able by certain neutral States to prohibit the export of 
goods which might aid a neighboring belligerent State. 
Some prohibitions have been decreed in order that the 
domestic stock of certain classes of goods might not be 
depleted. Whatever the reason, the course of commerce 
has been much disturbed and ordinary traffic has often 
been brought to an end. From the fact of geographical 
position in relation to the belligerents, such countries as 
Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Switzer- 
land have been forced to pay greatest attention to and 
to exercise widest control over exportation. These re- 
strictions unprecedented in extent have had an impor- 
tant ( ff ct upon the conduct of hostilities and must be 
considered in any comprehensive study of the war. It 
will be evident frcm the lists that if such restraints are 
to be placed upon trade certain ends formerly sought 
under the laws of blockade, contraband, and continuous 
voyage may be thus indirectly attained. The signifi- 
cance of this effect of war may best be seen in the actual 
and detailed lists of articles of which the export is pro- 
hibited. These lists have been changed or explained 
from time to time. It seems expedient that typical lists 
should be printed for convenient reference. 

ARTICLES WHOSE EXPORT IS PROHIBITED BY THE NEUTRAL 
EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. 

Department of State, 
Washington, D. C, September £0, 1915. 

[Corrected according to the latest available information.] 

DENMARK. 



33 



Air tubes and covers. 


Ammunition. 


Aluminum. 


Anilin. 


Ammonia and ammonia salts. 


Antimony. 


2.057—16 3 





34 



NEUTRAL EXPORT PROHIBITIONS. 



A pot horary articles. 

Apparatus (instruments for manufacture 

of weapons or ammunit ion I. 
Arms. 
Arms and ammunition: 

Arms. 

Ammunition. 

Explosives. 

Gunpowder. 

War material. 

Weapons of all kinds. 
Automobiles. 

Bags, empty cotton or jute. 
Bandages and material for Denmark. 
Barbed wire. 
Barium. 
Barley. 
Beans. 

Belt ing leather. 
Benzine. 
Benzol. 
Bicycles. 
Boards. 
Bran. 

Brass plates, barSj old brass. 
Bread, all kinds. 
Buckwheat. 
Cabbages. 
Cables. 

Candles, paraffine. 
Caninite. 
Carrots. 
Cattle. 
Cattle feed. 
Cereals. 
Chemicals: 

Magnesium. 

Nitrate of sodium. 

Nitric acid. 

Sulphur. 

Sulphuric acid. 
Chrome. 
Clover seed. 
Coal. 

Coal-tar dyes. 
Coke. 
Copper. 
Copper ores. 
Copra. 
Corn. 

Cotton hags. 
Cotton thread. 
Cotton waste. 
Col ton yarns. 
Cottonseed cake. 
Dressings. 

Dried huckleberries. 
Drugs, all kind-. 
Dynamite. 
Earthnuts. 
Electric cables. 



Explosives and materials for manufacture 
of. 

FeedstutTs I including oilcakes, hay,. straw, 
malt germs, crushed soya beans, bran. 
offals of grain, all carrots, all turnips, 
cabbages, peas i for cooking as well as tor 
feeding), beans and lentils, grain, malt, 
potatoes (except potatoes accompanied 
by a certificate issued by the ministry of 
agriculture's inspection for contagious 
plant diseases), flour (including 1 read of 
all sorts), and groats (including majzena, 
sago, rice, and buckwheat, sugar, raw. 
refined). 

Ferromanganese. 

Fert ilizers. art ificial. 

Fish oil, spent in shamov and shellac. 

Flaxseed. 

Flour (including breads of all sorts). 

Foodstuffs. 

Forage. 

Fuel. 

Gas cleaning material, used. 

Gasoline. 

Cloves. 

Glycerine. 

(boats. 

Gold. Gold and silver, coined or in bars 
I including foreign coins of gold and silver, 
silver rolled out, and gold in leaves). 
Travelers may, however, carry gold and 
silver coins not exceeding 200 kroner in 
value. 

(irain. 

Grain, waste and sweepings. 

Graphite. 

Croats, shredded grain. 

Gunpowder. 

Haematite iron ore. 

Harness, saddles (unless 30 per cent added 
to value of articles by home manufac- 
turer). 

Hay. 

Hemp. 

Hides, raw, salted, prepared. 

Hogs, live. 

Horses. 

Hospital supplies. 

Huckleberries, dried. 

Hypodermic syringes. 

Inflammable oils. 

Instruments and apparatus which are 
solely made for the manufacture of am- 
munition, for the construction or repair 
of weapons, and materials for warfare on 
land or sea. 

Iron, haematite (silicon, chrome ores). 

Iron plates covered with tin or zinc. 

Iron plates, tinned, waste from. 

Iron pyrites. 

Jute. raw. manufactured, and sacks. 



DENMARK. 



35 



Knitting machines. 

Lard. 

Lead. 

Leather (except goat). 

Leather belting. 

Lentils. 

Linseed. 

Linseed oil. 

Logs. 

Lubricants. 

Lumber. 

Macaroni. 

Maearons. 

Machinery and instruments for manufac- 
ture or repair of weapons or material for 
war. 

Machines for knitting. 

Magnesium. 

Malt germs. 

Malts. 

Manganese. 

Margarin. 

Meats, fresh. 

Medical specialties. 

Medicinal product s. 

Medicinals. 

Motor vehicles. 

Nickel (unwrought and ore;. 

Nitrate of sodium. 

Nitre. 

Nitre salts. 

Nitric acid. 

Offals of grain. 

Oil cake. 

Oil, spent fish, in shamoy and shellac. 

oils, lubricating. 

Oils, vegetable (for the manufacture of 
margarin). 

Oleomargarine. 

Oleo oil. 

Oleo stearine. 

Oleo stock. 

Onions. 

Organic acids. 

Parafnne. 

Paraffine candles. 

Peanuts. 

Peas (for cooking or feeding). 

Petroleum and other oils. 

Planks. 

Potash. 

Potash lye. 

Potash manure. 

Potash saltpeter. 

Potash salts, all sorts of. 

Potassium chloride. 

Potatoes (may export to United Stales 
from certified potato fields;. 

Powder. 

Pyrites. 

Rags (woolen, half woolen, or shoddy >. 



Raw materials for repair or construction of 
vessels or arms. 

Raw rubber. 

Resin. 

Rice. 

Riding and draught animals. 

Roentgen ray apparatus. 

Ropes (yarns for manufacture thereof). 

Rubber, raw. 

Sacks (cotton and jute, and jute material 
suitable for making bags). 

Saddles. (See Harness.) 

Sago. 

Salt chlorate. 

Salt chlorate potash. 

Seeds, clover. 

Seeds. 

Sesame seeds. 

Shoddy. 

Silicon. 

Silver (coined or in bars). 

Skins (calf, it over 8 kilos sailed). 

Skins (dressed, except goatskins). 

Skins (lamb and sheep). 

Soya beans. 

Spent fish oil, in shamoy and shellac. 

Starch made from corn, rice, potatoes 
wheat. 

Steel. 

Straw. 

Sugar, raw. re lined. 

Sulphur. 

Sulphur pyrites. 

Sulphuric acid. 

Surgical bandages and dressings. 

Syringes, hypodermic. 

Tallow. 

Thermometers. 

Timber. 

Tin chlorite. 

Tinned iron plates, waste from. 

Tin ores. 

Tin oxide. 

Tricot, woven and knitted. 

Turnips. 

Turpentine. 

Turpentine oil. 

Twist for cleaning, and material for hand- 
ages. 

Underwear. 

Vaseline. 

Vegetable oils, stearins for use in manu- 
facture of margarin. 

Vegetables. 

Vehicles, motor. 

War material. 

Waste, white. 

Weapons of all kinds. 

Wire, barbed. 

Wood. 

Wool (sheep lamb). 



36 



NEUTRAL EXPORT PROHIBITIONS. 



Woolen drawers. 

Woolen gloves. 

"Woo'.en goo Is ( except material suitable for 

curtains or furniture coverings). 
Woo'en, half woolen, underwear, and 

clothing. 
Woolen socks. 



Woo'.en undervests. 

Woolen waste (rags— shoddy). 

"Woo'en yarns. 

Worsted yarns. 

Worsted waistcoats, drawers, 

gloves for men. 
Zinc (in plates or blocks). 



socks, 



GREECE. 



Arms. 

Beer. 

Ben /.inc. 

Butter. 

Carbines. 

Cartridges for Mannlicher Schonahauser, 
Bulgarian Mannlicher, Turkish Mauser, 
Grass Martiai, Mauser Martini. 

Cartridge cases for rifles and big'guns in 
general. 

Cartridges for Bayer and Colt revolvers- 
Models: 73 and 93. 

Cattle. 

Cereals. 

Cheese. 

Coal. 

Coffee. 

Contraband and conditional contraband, 
including transit goods. 

Cotton. 

Feed. 

Field glasses. 

Flour. 

Fodder. 

<Jold (coin and bullion). 



Harness for artillery and cavalry 

Leather in general. 

Live stock. 

Magnesite ore, raw and calcined. 

Moneys of gold (ingots of gold). 

Oil. 

Oxen. 

Petroleum. 

Preserves. 

Rice. 

Rifles. 

Revolvers, Bayer and^Colt, 73~and 93 

models. 
Shoes, army. 
Soda. 
Sugar. 

Sulphate'of copper and sulphur in general. 
Swords (for cavalry and artillery). 
Tanning materials. 
Telephone accessories. 
Valonia and all other tanning materials. 
Wheat. 
Wool. 
Woolen yarns. 



NETHERLANDS. 



Acetone. 

Adaline. 

Aeroplanes and accessories. 

Aether. 

Alba, magnesia (?). 

Alcohol. 

Almond substitute. 

Alpaca hair. 

Alum. 

Ammonia, hydrosulphate of. 

Ammonium carbonate. 

Ammunition. 

Aniline, derivaties of, used in practices of 

me licine. 
Antimonium regulus. 
Antifebrine. 
Antimony, regulus of. 
Antipyrine. 
Arms and ammunition: 

Ammunition. 

Explosives. 

Lime. 

Powder. 
Arsenicum. 
Arrowroot. 



Ashes. 

Aspirine. 

Automobiles and bodies, and~accessories, 
including tires. 

Bacon (bellies, dry, salted, smoked, and 
fresh). 

Barbed wire. 

Barley. 

Beans. 

Beans, French, string. 

Beef, fresh, smoked, unless with special 
permit. 

Benzine. 

Bic-cles. 

Bismuth. 

Blankets. 

Bone dust. 

Bone meal. 

Bones. 

Borax. 

Bread. 

Briquets (except charcoal briquets). 

Bromine salts and ott'er bromine com- 
positions. 

Buckwheat. 



NETHERLANDS. 



37 



Butter. 

Cabbage. 

Calcium acetate. 

Calcium nitrate. 

Camel hair. 

Camphor. 

Camphoric acid. 

Carbol, crude and pure. 

Carriages. 

Cassava flour. . 

Cast-iron waste. 

Cattle. 

Cattle feed (except beets and turnips for). 

Cereals. 

Cheese. 

Chemicals: 

Acetone. 

Aether. 

Alcohol. 

Ammonium carbonate. 

Antimonium regulus. 

Antimony, regulus of. 

Calcium acetate. 

Calcium nitrate. 

Chili saltpeter. 

Chloride of lime. 

Bicarbonate of soda. 

Explosives, liquid. 

Glycerin. 

Iodic acid. 

Iodine and iodine preparations and 
compositions. 

Lactic acid. 

Lime, nitrogen. 

Natrum. 

Nitrate of sodium. 

Nitric acid. 

Potash. 

Soda. 

Soda bicarbonate. 

Sodium nitrate. 

Sulphuric acid. 
Chili saltpeter. 
Chicory, including roots. 
Chloride of lime. 
Cloth, military, and articles made from 

same. 
Clothing (men's waistcoats, or woolen 
undervests, woolen drawers, woolen 
socks, woolen gloves). 
Coal (pit coal, except the necessary quan- 
tities for bunkers). 
Coal-tar dyes and other coal-tar products 
used in the manufacture of coal-tar dyes. 
Cocoa and cocoa beans. 
Cod-liver oil. 
Coffee. 

Coffee substitute. 
Coins, foreign, 01 gold and silver (travelers 

may carry not over 200 kroonen). 
Coke. 



Copper alloys, oxide sulphate. 

Corn. 

Corn meal. 

Cotton, raw. 

Cotton seed, oil, cake, and meal. 

Cotton thread. 

Cotton waste. 

Creosote and cresoU 

Diamonds, polished, unless accompanied 

by certificate showing they were polished 

in the Netherlands, C65178. 
Diaspirine. 
Dixtrine. 
Dyes, coal-tar and other coal-tar products 

for the manufacture of same. 
Electric pocket lamps, accessories, and raw 

material for manufacture of same. 
Ether. 

Etheral oils (some exceptions). 
Explosives, liquid. 
Fats (melted and unmelted, animal, 

compounds thereof, and compounds 

thereof with vegetable fats). 
Fecula and products. 
Fertilizers, nitrogenous. 
Fish oil, hardened. 
Flannel, and underwear from same. 
Flax and refuse of. 
Flax waste serviceable for manufacture of 

yarns, etc. 
Flour. 
Fodder. 
Food products (those made from barley,. 

buckwheat, make, oats, rye, spelt, and 

wheat, except beer, biscuits, bread, cake 

(all kinds), corn oil, gin, macaroni-malt 

wine, powder, pudding, wafers, yeast). 
Fowl, live and dead. 
French beans. 
Fruits, siliculose. 
Fuel, liquid, patent. 
Furs. 

Glucose or grape sugar. 
Glycerin. 

Gold, coin and specie. 
Grain. 

Grain waste and sweepingo. 
Grease. 
Grits. 

Groats, shredded grain. 
Groundnut cake and meal. 
Guano. 

Gypsum or plaster. 
Hams, fresh or smoked. 
Hay. 

Hides (except furs). 
Horses, including colts and geldings. 
Hospital supplies. 
Hydrochloric acid. 
Hydrosulphate of ammonia. 
Instruments. 



38 



Ml TRJLL export prohibitions. 



I nm of every descript ion. 

Iron profiles. 

Jute, raw. manufactured, and sacks. 

Kt'io-ene and crude pils used for motors. 

Lactic acid. 

Lactophenine. 

Lamps, electric pocket, accessories and 
raw materials for manufacture of same. 

Lead, sugar of. 

Lead and lead alloys. 

Leather (excepl belts and belting . 

Leguminous plants, fruits of. 

Lime, nitrogen. 

Linen thread. 

Linseed. 

Liquid explosives. 

Live stock. 

Lubricants. 

Lupine see* 1 . 

Machine oil and grease. 
-Magnesia. 

Magnesium oxide. 

Magnesium salts. 

Meats, fresh. 

Meats contained in t ins. 

Medical and optical instruments of every 
description. 

Medicaments and wound-dressing mate- 
rial. 

Medicinals (all articles for dressing 
wounds, except theobromide. diureti. 
imra, sulphate of quinine, quinine salts 
and the combinations of quinine-alka- 
loids, the bark of quinine and the prod- 
ucts made of the bark of quinine, cocaine. 
and cubeb >. 

Mercury and mercurial salts. 

Mine supports. 

Mohair. 

Molasses. 

Motorcycles and accessories. 

Mutton. 

Naphtha. 

Naphthaline. 

Nat rum. 

Needles for knitting machines. 

Neosalversan. 

Nickel, raw and manufacture. 1. 

Nitrate of sodium. 

Nitric acid. 

Nitrogenous lime. 

Novashirine. 

Oil. 

Cotton seed, elheral. fish. 

Oil, peppermint. 

Oil seed (all seeds for extracting oil, 
excepl canary seed, caraway seed, mus- 
tard seed, and poppy seed 

I >ils, lubricating. 

Opium and its derivatives. 



Optical and medical instruments of every 
description. 

Palm kernels. 

Patent fuel. 

Peanuts. 

Peas. 

Peppermint oil. 

Petrol. 

Petroleum and residues. 

Phosphates, crude. 

Pigs. 

Pigs led and heads, pickled. 

Plated metal plates and rolls (except zinc- 
plate ). 

Pocket lamps, electric, accessories and raw 
material for manufacture of same. 

Pork products. 

Potash (canst icand carbonate of lye, potas- 
sium sal 

Potatoes. 

Potato flour. 

Potato sago. 

Potato starch. 

Powder. 

Profiles, iron. 

Provisions containing meat in tins. 

Pulp. 

Pyrites. 

Rags (except cotton . 

Rape seed (cake and meal i. 

Regulus of antimony. 

Rennet preparations. 

Rice. 

Rice flour. 

Ricinus oil. 

Rosin. 

Rubber waste. 

Rye (also rye flour). 

Sacks, empty. 

Salicylic duiretine and other derivatives of 
salicyl and aniline used in practice of 
medicine. 

Salipyrine. 

Salt . 

Saltpeter. 

Salver san. 

Sauerkraut . 

Sausages. 

Scythes. 

Seeds (grass, clover, hemp, lupine). 

Sheep, live. 

Sheep fleece. 

Sheet metal (including decorated sheet 
metal, parts of sheel-metal plates, sheet 
metal under elaboration, and completed 
sheet-metal packing receptacles 

Shellac. 

Shellac, crude. 

Siliculose fruits. 

Sirup. 

soft, yellow or green. 



NORWAY. 



39 



Soda. 

Sodium nitrate. 

Soporifics like adaline, veronal and trional. 

Soya beans. 

Spades. 

Spelt. 

Spelter or zinc. 

Starch. 

Steel wire and objects made thereof. 

Steel for tool construction. 

Stomachs of calves. 

Straw. 

Sugar. 

Sugar of lead. 

Sugar beets and pulp. 

Sulphuric acid. 

Superphosphates. 

Surgical instruments and of glass and 
porcelain and articles 

Tapica and like products. 

Tanning materials and tanning extract. 

Tartaric acid. 

Tea. 

Thread, mixed, of jute, col I on. linen, wool. 

Thread, cotton hemp. 

Threads, linen. 

Threads, woolen. 

Thymol. 

Timber for mines. 

Tinplate and objects made thereof. 

Tires. 

Tires (rubber for and on bicycles). 

Tobacco (except from Netherlands and 
colonies: may not be exported to bellig- 
erent countries). 

Tolvol. 

Trional and like soporifics. 

Turpentine and substitutes. 



Csta or magnesium oxide. 

Vaseline. 

Vegetables in brine (except pearl onions, 

cucumbers, cauliflower sprouts). 
Vehicles, horse. 
Veronal. 
Vetches. 
Vitriol. 
Waistcoats. 

Walnut trees and walnut wood. 
Water pipes of lead. 
Water pipes of tin. 
Weapons of every description except for 

hunting. 
Wearing apparel, worn (except baggage)- 
Wheat . 

Wire, objects made of. 
Wire, steel, and objects made thereof. 
Wood, walnut, and walnut trees. 
Wool, artificial, raw, washed, and refuse. 
Woolen blankets. 
Woolen drawers. 
Woolen gloves. 
Woolen, half woolen, underwear, and 

clothing. 
Woolen refuse. 
Woolen socks. 
Woolen under vests. 
Worsted goods. 
Worsted waistcoats, drawers, socks, gloves 

for men. 
Yarns and goods wholly or partially made 

thereof adaptable for military purposes. 
Zinc or spelter. 1 
Zinc, raw and manufactured, except when 

zinc is not principal ingredient in manu- 
factured articles. 1 



NORWAY. 



Alum. 

Aluminium, unelaborated (except that 
produced in Norwegian works and ac- 
companied by a certificate of origin). 

Aluminium refuse. 

Aluminium salts. 

Aluminium worked up into plates, strips, 
tubes, bars, rings, and wire, together 
with castings. 

Ammunition. 

Anilin. (See Coal-tar dyes. ) 

Antimony, unelaborated or crude. 

Antimony, refuse. 

Anl imony. sulfides. 

Antimony, oxides. 

Antimony, alloys. 

Apatite and other crude phosphates. 

Apparatus and instruments for medical, 
surgical, veterinary, and dental use, and 
for t he care of the sick in general. 

1 Zinc plate not 



Asbestos, crude (except that obtained in 

Norway and accompanied by a certificate 

of origin). 
Asbestos, articles of (even mixed with 

other materials or combined therewith). 
Ashes, seaweed. 
Aspen t imber. 
Automobiles. 
Automobile tires. 

Balata, crude and partially worked up. 
Barbed fence wire (barb wire). 
Batteries, dry, for incandescent electric 

lights. 
Benzol. (See Coal-tar dyes. ) 
Bone dust , sulphatic, and other bone dusl . 
Bone tallow fat, from ruminants (except 

neat's-foot oils of Norwegian origin). 
Bottles, empty. 
Brass. (See Copper. ; 
Camphor, purified. 
embargoed. 



40 



NEUTRAL EXPORT PROHIBITIONS. 



Caoutchouc, gum elasticum (in a raw state 

and in ssmialaborated articles). 
Carbon tips for searculights and arc lights. 
Caseine. 
Cattle, live. 
Ceresine. 
Charcoal. 
Cheese. 
Chick-peas. 
Chloride of potassium and other potassium 

salts. 
Coal. y 

Coal tar. 

Coal-tar dyes and organic intermediate 
products for the production of coal-tar 
dyes, such as anilin, naphthol, naphthyl- 
amin, naphthylaminsulfo acids, banzol, 
crosole, and cresole preparations, includ- 
ing creolin and lysol, salicylic acid, etc. 
Coke. 

Copper, unelaborated (except that pro- 
duced in Norwegian works accompanied 
by a certificate of origin). 
Alloys of copper with base metals, unelab- 
orated. 
Refuse of copper and cupriferous alloys 

(brass, etc.). 
Copper and alloys thereof with base metals, 
worked into articles: 
Plates and strips. 
Bars. 

Rolled wire. 
Drawn wire. 

Cup-shaped utensils for cartridge man- 
ufacture. 
Bolts, nails, spikes, and tubes. 
Moldings. 

Wire, twisted into ropes or cables, un- 
insulated; provided with a covering 
with or without reinforcement; 
wound with insulating material of 
any kind. 
Castings. 
Copper sulphate. 
Cotton, crude. 
Cotton articles, knitted. 
Cotton goods, woven, except curtains. 
Cotton thread. 
Cotton underwear, knitted. 
Cotton wadding. 
Cotton waste. 
Cotton yarn. 
Cotton wool. 

Creolin. (See Coal tar dyes.) 
Cresole. (See Coal-tar dyes. ) 
Cresole preparations. (See Coal-tar dyes.) 
Cycle tires. 

Dental material, apparatus, instruments. 
Dry elements lor electric pocket lamps. 
Dynamite caps. 



Electromagnetic igniters for motors, unat- 
tachea. 

Electrical machinery of every kind (except 
that manufactured in Norway and ac- 
companied by a certificate of origin). 

Fence wire, barbed. 

Fish guano. 

Flaxseed. 

Foodstuffs (except fish goods, condensed 
milk, butter, berries, game, poultry, 
eggs, coffee, and spices. Excepted from 
the embargo is also that which is needed 
for the use of a ship on an impending 
voyage). 

Glycerine, raw, refined, or purified. 

Goats, live. 

Gold, elaborated and unelaborated, coined 
and uncoined. (Gold worked up into 
ornaments or useful articles may never- 
theless be exported.) 

Graphite, unelaborated or crude (except 
that obtained in Norway and accompa- 
nied by certificate of origin). 

Graphite for use in moldings and castings, 
including crucibles. 

Guano, fish. 

Guano, whale. 

Gum elasticum. (See Caoutchouc.) 

Gutta-percha, crude and partially elabo- 
rated. 

Hemp, crude, workea. 

Herring meal. (See Raw materials.) 

Hides and skins, together with products 
thereof. 

Hogs, live. 

Horses, live. 

Horseshoes. 

lodin. 

Jute, raw, and products and refuse there- 
from. 

Jute linen'ganny. (The embargo does not 
include jute linen (gunny) which is used 
for packing or which otherwise enters as 
an insignificant component part of an 
article.) 

Kelp. 

Lard oil. 

Lead. 

Linseed. 

Linseed oil. 

Liver meal. (See Raw materials.) 

Lubricants, wholly or partially produced 
from solid or liquid mineral oils. 

Lysol. (See Coal-tar dyes.) 

Machinery suited for preparation of ammu- 
nition. 

Machinery, electrical. (See Electrical ma- 
chinery.) 

Medical material, apparatus, and instru- 
ments. 



NORWAY. 



41 



Medicines of all kinds, including raw iodin 
and iodin. (The embargo includes all 
the substances mentioned in Lists A and 
B of the royal mandate of August 29, 1908, 
relating to the trade in poisons and drugs, 
and also the following substances men- 
tioned in List C: Absolute alcohol, citric 
acid and its salts, tartaric acid and its 
salts, collodium, chemically pure hydro- 
chloric acid, chemically pure sulfuric 
acid, milk sugar, formaldehyde solution 
and other formaldehyde preparations, 
Peruvian balsam, wool grease (all kinds), 
vaseline, and vaseline oil.) 
Mercury. 
Mineral oils. 

Molybdenum, unelaborated or crude. 
Molybdenite (except that obtained in Nor- 
way and accompanied by a certificate of 
origin). 
Motors of over 15 horsepower which are 
constructed for a greater revolutionary 
speed than 600 revolutions per minute 
and which at the same time have a 
weight of under 25 kilograms per horse- 
power. 
Motor boats in which motors are installed. 
Motor cycles and parts thereof. 
Neat's-foot oil. 

Naphthol. (See Coal-tar dyes.) 
Naphthylamri. 
Naphthylaminsulfo acids. 
Nickel, unelaborated (except that pro- 
duced in Norwegian works and accom- 
panied by a certificate of origin). 
Nickel ore. 
Nickel sulphate. 
Oils, mineral. 

Oils, vegetable fatty, as follows: 
Castor. 
Cocoa (nut). 
Corn. 

Cotton (seed). 
Hempseed. 
Lard. 
Linseed. 
Lubricants (all except oils from fish 

and sea animals). 
Maize. 
Mineral. 
Olive. 
Palm. 

Palm kernel. 
Peanut. 

Petroleum grease (?). 
Rapeseed. 
Resin oil. 
Sesame. 



Turpentine (except of Norwegian ori- 
gin). 
Wood-tar oil. 



Oleomargarine and raw products for man- 
ufacture thereof. 

Ozocerite. 

Paraffin wax. 

Peat. 

Phosphates, crude 

Potash. 

Raw iodin. 

Raw materials. (Herring meal, whale- 
meat meal, and liver meal come among 
others under the embargo, but not whale 
guano and fish guano.) 

Raw phosphates. (See Apatite.) 

Reindeers, live. 

Resin. 

Resin containing glue. 

Resin oil. 

Resinous oils. 

Rubber refuse. 

Sacks, empty. 

Salicylic acid. (See Coal-tar dyes.) 
Salted and other bone dust. 
Scheelite (except that obtained in Norway 
and accompanied by a certificate of ori- 
gin). 
i Seaweed ashes. 

Sheep, live. 
I Shellac. 
Skins. (See Hides.) 
Skis. 
Silver, elaborated and unelaborated, 

coined and uncoined. (Silver worked 

up into ornaments or useful articles jnay 

nevertheless be exported.) 
Stearin. (Except Norwegian.) 
Stannic chloride. 
Superphosphate. 
Sulphur and flours of sulphur. 
Sulphate of nickel. 
Suphite. 

Surgical materials. 
Swine, live. 
Tanning substances. 
Tar, coal. 
Tar, oil. 
Tin, crude. 

Tin in rolls, bars, plates, and raspings. 
Tin ore. 

Tinplate, decorated. 
Tinplate, worked into articles. 
Tinplate packing. 
Tinplate sheets and parts thereof. 
Tires for automobiles and cycles. 
"Thomas" phosphate. 
Tungsten, unelaborated or crude. 
Turpentine oil. (Except that producedin 

Norwegian works and accompanied by 

a certificate of origin.) 
Vanadin, unelaborated or crude. 
Vegetable oils. (See oils.) 
Veterinary materia], apparatus, and instru- 
ments. 



42 



NEUTRAL EXPORT PROHIBITIONS. 



Zinc, worked, unworked, and waste 
cut tines. 

Exceptions from export imbargcxs. 

That which is needed for the use of a ship 

on an impending voyage shall be ex- 
cepted from the embargoes. 



Weapons and parts thereof. 

Whale guano. 

Whale-meat meal. (See Raw materials.) 

Wolframite. (Except that obtained in 
Norway and accompanied by certificate 
of origin. | 

Wood for heat ing purposes. 

Wood tar oil. 

Wool and woolen goods, including all kinds 
of wool refuse, both in a ground and un- 
bound -<tate. 

Transitory provisions. 
As regards the transit carriage of goods whose exportation is for- 
bidden, the department of agriculture, in accordance vith paragraph 
5 of the law of August 18. 1914. has ordered for the time being that 
goods from abroad which come to Norway and are consigned to a 
foreign market shall be permitted to be sent on without a special per- 
mit. On the contrary, foreign goods consigned to a Norwegian market 
can not I be exported \ ithout permission from the department of 
agriculture foreign office), even if they are intended to be sent on. 
(Foreign Office. May 1. 1915. > 



Accessories for motor vehicles. 1 2 

Alcohol, not including spiritous drinks. 8 

Alum. 1 a 

Aluminum. 1 •'< 

Aluminum. 

Antimony. 1 :< 

Automobile accessories and I ires. 

Bauxite. 1 :i 

Brass, articles of. semi or totally manu- 
factured. :i 

Cakes and oleaginous foodstuffs.' 3 

Carbons for electric light. 8 

rattle. - 

Cereals.- ' 

Chromium.' 

Codfish.:" 

Combustibles. 2 

Copper, articles of, semi or totally manu- 
factured.- 

Ferrochromium. 8 

Ferromanganesi 

Ferromolybdenum. 3 



PORTUGAL. 

Ferroniekel. 8 
Ferrotungsten. 8 
Ferro vanadium. 8 

Fleece wool, washed or waste. 8 

Foodstuffs (except fresh, dried, or pre- 
served fruits sardines, wines, with the 
exceptions of the provisions of decrees 
Xos. 1374 of March 2 and 1459 of March 30, 
and 1496 of April 12 last). 2 

Fuel. 

Hides, green, or dry, weighing less than 2."> 
kilos. 1 8 

Hides, tanned/' 

Jute, either crude or worked. 1 :i 

Manganese. 8 

Margarine oils and fats suitable for its 
manufacture (except linseed oil and oilof 
oleaginous seeds). 3 

Medicinal products. 2 < 

Molybdenum. 3 

Motor vehicles, accessories for. 2 ■■ 

.Nickel. 1 8 



1 Includes semimanufactured or manufactured merchandise in which the product 
predominates, including, with regard to metals, their respective alloys. 

- Transit and transshipments forbidden when goods arrive in Continental Portugal 
or the adjacent islands described in manifests and bills of lading as shipped to order, or 
without ail express declaration on said documents and at port of shipment as to the 
name of the consignee and the place or port of destination. 

These conditions do not apply to transactions made under contracts already signed, 
but the existence of these contracts must be proven, within 15 days from the publication 
ol -\i\< decree, before the commission of subsistences and the goods must be exported 
within one month from the authorization given by the minister of finance on the report 
of the above-mentioned commission. 

Reexportation forbidden, with conditions given in note 2. 

1 Reexportation forbidden. 
Exportation and reexportation. 



KOI MANIA SPAIN. 



43 



Oil. lubricating. 

Oils and lubricating substances (including 

mineral oils, resinous substances, animal 

oils commonly used for lubrication and 

its mixtures, excepting oils and fats from 

fish and whale. 1 
Oleaginous foodstuffs. i 
Paraffin. 1 
Pneumatic tires, outer covers and inDer 

tubes and other accessories for motor 

vehicles. 2 * 
Rice.a * 
Skins, green or dry, weighing less than 25 

kilos. i 
Skins, tanned. 1 



Sugar, s « 

Tanned hides or skins. 

Tanning materials. 1 

Tin (exportation, reexportation and trans- 
shipment). 3 

Tin, objects of. 1 

Tires, pneumatic outer covers and inner 
tubes and other accessories for motor 
vehicles. 2 3 

Tungsten (wolfram). 1 

Vanadium.' 

Vegetables. 3 4 

Wool, unmanufactured, washed, raw, or 
waste. 



ROUMANIA. 



Animals for transportation purposes. 

Automobiles. 

Barley. 

Beans. 

Carriages. 

Cereals. 

Coal. 

Farm products for animals. 

Firearms (except sporting goods). 

Flour. 

Gold (coin and in all forms). 

Grain (consumed by herbiferous animals). 

Handles for shovels and axes, wooden. 

Hay. 

Hides, raw or tanned. 

Horses. 

Munitions for cannon, guns, rifles, re- 
volvers, etc., shells for cartridges, ex- 
plosives, wicks. 



Oats. 

Oxen. 

Peas. 

Petroleum, residues. 

Rye. 

Shot and lead to be melted, but not the 

lead articles, as pipes for water and others. 
Skins, raw or dressed. 
Smokeless powder, as well as black powder. 
Sulphuric acid. 
Swords, sabers, bayonets (except those 

used in fencing). 
Telegraph and telephone apparatus. 
Vehicles. 
Wagons. 
Wheat. 

Wireless telegraph apparatus. 
Wooden handles for shovels and axes. 
Woolens of every description. 



SPAIN. 



Beef, preserved. 

Brass, articles wholly or partially manu- 
factured of. 

Buffalo skins and manufactures thereof 
(also reexportation). 

Cattle. 

Chick-peas. 

Chromium. 



Almonds (except edible). 

Alumina, alloys of, anhydrous orhydrated. 

Alumina, sulfate of. 

Aluminium. 

Aluminum, manufactures of. 

Antimony. 

Bauxite. 

Beans, white and colored. 

1 Reexportation forbidden, with conditions given in note 3. 
- Exportation and reexportation. 

3 Transit and transshipments forbidden when goods arrive in Continental Portugal 
or the adjacent islands described in manifests and bills of lading as shipped to order, or 
without an express declaration on said documents and at port of shipment as to the 
name of the consignee and the place or port of destination. 

These conditions do not apply to transactions made under contracts already signed, 
but the existence of these contracts must be proven, within 15 days from the publication 
of this decree, before the commission of subsistences and the goods must be exported 
within one month from the authorization given by the minister of finance on the report 
of the above-mentioned commission. 

4 Reexportation forbidden. 

'■< Royal order of Apr. 10, 1915, permits export of chick-peas up to 10,000 long Ions, 
when embargo again becomes e lective. 



44 



NEUTRAL, EXPORT PROHIBITIONS. 



Coal, mineral. 

Cocoa. 

Copper, articles wholly or partially manu- 
factured of. 

Copper, sulfate of. 

Corn. 

Cotton, raw. 

Eggs. 

Fats and oils, mineral and vegetable (ex- 
cepting 1 indeed oil, olein, and olive oil). 

Ferro chromium. 

Ferroman^anese. 

Ferromolybdenum. 

Ferronickel. 

Ferro tungsten. 

Ferrovanadium. 

Flour of wheat. 

Fowls, living or dead. 

Hides, untanned. 

Jute, raw and manufactured (except bags, 
sandals, and waste). 

Leather, domestic, rough or untanned (re- 
exportation also forbidden). 

Lentils. 

Lubricants and margarine, raw materials 
for the preparations of. 

Manganese, metal. 

Margarine and raw materials for the prep- 
aration of. 

Meat extract. 

Meat, fresh. 

Metalvanadium. 

Molybdenum. 

Money, gold and silver. 

Nickel. 

Nitrate of sodium. 

Nuts (except edible). 



Oils of whale, seal, and cod-liver; palm oils 
and fats, mineral and vegetable (except- 
ing linseed oil, olein, and olive oils). 
Palm oil. 
Paraffin wax. 
Potash. 

Potatoes (excepting spring and early). 
Rice. 

Rubber and compounds, wholly or par- 
tially manufactured. 
Seeds, flax and other oleaginous, including 

coconut. 
Sulphur. 
Tin. 

Tin, sheet. 

Tow and linen yarns. 
Wax, paraffin. 
Wheat. 
Zinc in blocks. 

The Spanish export tax of 10 per cent 
declared in 1913 is maintained and the 
shipment abroad of the following articles 
will be taxed per 100 kilograms (220.4 
pounds), as below: 
Bacon. 

Ham and salt pork. 
i Potatoes, spring or early. 
Rye. 

Skins, buffalo, and manufactures thereof. 
Wool: 

Raw. (Embargo remains effective un- 
til end of May, 1915.) 
Combed, washed, or carded yarn. 
(Embargo remains effective until 
June 15, 1915.) 
Australian. (Reexportation prohib- 
ited.) 



All articles, exportation of which is prohibited, can not be reexported 
abroad in transit or by transshipment having once arrived at a Spanish 
port with bill of lading on which destination is given as Spain or when 
specific destination is lacking. To this end, embargoed articles accom- 
panied by documents to order or without place of destination abroad 
and also those accompanied by simple bill of lading to Beard will be 
considered as intended for Spain and not reexportable. 

SWEDEN. 



Acids (see also Chemicals, etc.): 
Acetylic salicylic (Fr. 1258). 
Acetylsalicyl. 
Bromic acid salts. 
Carbolic (1176). 

Citric and wine vinegar (1140). 
Oleine and other oil acids not specially 

mentioned. 
Salicylic (Fr. 1141). 
Salicylic acid salts. 

Sulphuric and sulphuric acid anhydrid. 
Tannic (Fr. 1243). 



Alcohol made from potatoes (Fr. 183C and 
184D). 

Ammunition wagons. (See War mate- 
rial.) 

Aniline. (See Oils.) 

Animals: 

Colts under 1 year. 

Oxen. 

Pigs. 

Stallions; other horses. 
Armor. (See War material.) 



SWEDEN. 



45 



Arms and ammunition (see also War mate- 
rial and explosives): 
Firearms, including revolvers and pis- 
tols; machine guns without carri- 
ages; also completed parts of such 
firearms, revolvers and pistols, ma- 
chine guns, other kinds (on the other 
hand, not hunting guns, air and 
spring guns). 
Florets, sabers, swords, bayonets, cut- 
lasses, and similar weapons (with or 
without sheaths); also parts thereof, 
gilded, silver-plated, nickeled, or 
etched: other kinds. 
Lead bullets and shot. (See Lead un- 
der metals, etc.) 
Arterial indigo (1194B). 
Automobiles and accessories. (See Vehi- 
cles.) 
Bags of sack cloth, evidently used. 
Bags of sack cloth, not evidently used other 

than so-called drop bags. 
Balata. (See Rubber.) 
Bark: 

White wood. 
China. 

Not specially mentioned for tan- 
ning. 
Bone dust. 

Buljong cubes, so-called. 
Cables, electrical. (See Wire.) 
Calves" stomachs (Fr. 73B). 
Cannon. (See War material.) 
Carriages. (See Vehicles and War mate- 
rial.) 
Cartridge cases. (See War materials.) 
Cartridges. (See Arms and ammunition 

and war material.) 
Catecu. (See Tanning materials.) 
Catgut (Fr. 1325). 
Cattle. (See Animals.) 
Cattle hair. 

Chemicals, drugs, medicinal and pharma- 
ceutical preparations (see also, Surgical 
supplies): 
Agar-agar (Fr. 1250). 
Aloe. 
Alyssum. 
Aminoform. 

Ammonia, bromide of (Fr. 1145). 
Ammonia, iodine of (Fr. 1145). 
Andrenalin and salts and preparations 

thereof. 
Antifebrile. 
Antifebrin. 
Antipyretics (Pyrazolonum fenyldi- 

metylicum). 
Arecaand its salts. 
Arecolineand itssalts. 
Atropamine and its salts. 
Atropine and its salts. 



Chemicals, etc.— Continued. 

Balsam, Peruvian and mastic; also 
styrax, raw or purifed (1178). 

Bismuth (Fr. 953). 

Bismuth, combinations of. 

Bougier. 

Bromic acid salts (Fr. 1259). 

Bromide of ammonia (Fr. 1145). 

Bromide of hydrogen. 

Bromide of potassium (Fr. 1145). 

Bromide of sodium (Fr. 1145). 

Bromide, organic combinations of (Fr. 
1258 and 1259). 

B romide salts that ran not be referred 
_ to par. 1 145 and bromic acid salts ( Fr! 
1259). 

Bromine (Fr. 1145). 

Bromural and preparations thereof. 

CaTein. 

Ca^eine and salts and preparations 
thereof. 

Calcium chloride (potassa and chloric 
a?id) (1147A). 

Calcium perchloride (Fr. 1159). 

Camphor. puri"ed (Fr. 1216). 

Caustic potassa (potassium hydrate) 
(Fr. 1143). 

Chloral hydrate. 

Chloral potassium (1145D). 

Chloric ethyl and chloric methyl. 

Chlorine and chloride of lime. 

Chloroform. 

Cocainechloride. 

Co?ain chloride. 

Co°o leaves. 

Colchicine. 

Colophony: ordinary turpentine rosin. 

Creosote and meta^reosote (1176). 

Cresol and metaTesoI. 

Cresol soap, solution of (lysol) (1125). 

Diaethymalonyl arl amid and itssalt. 

Diethyl amine carbamine (veronal) and 
its salts. 

Digitalin. 

Digitalis, leaves of. and preparations 
thereof, such as digitalin and digi- 
toxin. 

Digitalis leaves and senna leaves. 

Digitoxin. 

Duboisine and its salts and combina- 
tions thereof. 

Epinephrine and salts and prepara- 
tions thereof. 

Epirenine and salts and preparations 
thereof. 

Eucaine. 

Formalin in solid form (paraformalde- 
hyde) (1184). 

Formin. 

Gelatine for bacteriological purposes 
(1249). 



4(> 



Ml TRAL EXPORT PROHIBITIONS. 



Chemicals, etc. — Continued. 

< rutta-percha plasters, quicksilver and 
quicksilver carbolic. 

Sexamethylene (urotropine, formin, 
aminoform) and its salts. 

Eexametylentetramin. 

Hycosin. (See Scopolamine.) 

Bydrastic root. 

Hydrogen, bromide of. 

Hydrogen, iodine of. 

Iodine (Fr. 1145). 

Iodine of ammonia (Fr. 114.")). 

Iodine of hydrogen. 

Iodine, organic combinations of. 

Iodine of potassium (Fr. 114.")). 

Iodine salts which can not be referred 
to par. 114.">. 

Iodine of sodium (Fr. 1145). 

Iodoform. 

Ipecacuanha root, rhizoma veratr 
(prust root, white), and senega root. 

Litmus (Fr. 1206). 

Lozenges of sublimate. 

" Luminal." 

Lysol. 

Lysol (solution of cresol soap) 1 1125), 

Magnesite (Fr. 3H). 

Magnesite, bricks of (650C I. 

Manganate of pottassium (kaliumper- 
manganat). 

Mastic and Peruvian balsam: also sty- 
rax or purified (117s). 

Mastic preparations (Fr. 1117, 1119). 

Metacreosote and creosote (1176). 

Morphine and other products of opium, 
such as codein. etc., and physostig- 
min. 

Xeosalvarsan and salvarsan. 

Xovocaine. 

Opium (Fr. 1324). 

Opium, products of, such as mor- 
phine, codein, etc. 

opium, tincture of, and other prepa- 
rations of opium for medical pur- 
poses. 

! 'araformaldehyde. 

Paraformaldehyde (formalin in solid 
form) (11S4). 

Paranephrine and salts and prepara- 
tions thereof (Fr. 1258). 

Peptones for bacteriological purposes 
(Fr. 147). 

Peroxide (1169). 

Peroxide of hydrogen. 

Peruvian balsam and mastic: also 
styrax, raw or purified (1178). 

Peruvian bark. 

•• Peter's Basin," so called (Fr. 698). 

Phenacetin. 

Phosphates, raw. other kinds (4E). 

Phosphate. Thomas, and unground 
so-called Thomas slag (1227F). 



Ch< micals, etc.— Continued. 
Physostigma. 
Physostigmin. 

Potassie saltpeter < calcium nitrate) 

(1151). 
Potassium, bromide of (Fr. 1145). 
Potassium, iodine of (Fr. 1145). 
Potassium, manganate of (kaliumper- 

manganat |. 
Propolis. 
Pyramidon (pyrazolonum and di- 

metylaminophenyl). 
Quicksilver. 

Quicksilver and quicksilver carbolic. 
Quicksilver salts. 
Quicksilver and quicksilver salts; 

preparations thereof for medical 

purposes, for example, quicksilver 

plasters and quicksilver carbolic 

gutta-percha plasters. 
Quinine and its salts. 
Quinine, quinine salts, and prepara- 
tions of quinine. 
Raw phosphates, other kinds | IE l. 
Rhizoma veratri (white). 
Rhubarb, root of, medicinal, and 

preparat ions t hereof. 
Root of rhubarb, medicinal, and 

preparat ions t hereof. 
Sagrada bark and preparation thereof. 
Salipyrine (pyrazolonum pheyldi- 

metylicum salicylicum). 
Salicyl acidic salt and vismut salts. 
Salt, common (chlorid of sodium). 
Salt, rock, in pieces or ground. 
Salt, saline (so-called dairy). 
Salt, sea. 
Salt, table. 
Saltpeter, Chilian (sodium nitrate) 

and Norwegian (potassium nitrate). 
Salts, bromide of potassium. (See 

also Salts.) 
Salvarsan and neosalvarsan. 
Santonine and preparations thereof. 
Scopolamine (hycosin) and its salts. 
Semen colchici and preparations 

thereof. 
Senega-root. 
Senna leaves. 

Senna pods (follieuli senna). 
Serum and vaccine. 
Sodium, bromide of (Fr. 1145). 
Sodium, iodine of (Fr. 1145). 
Strassfurter potassie salts, not specially 

mentioned, also refined (1227 B-E). 
styrax. raw or purified, mastic and 

Peruvian balsam (117s |. 
Sublimate, lozenges of. 
Sublimate pastiles. 
Sulphite spirit. 
Sulphur. 
Superphosphate 1 1229 1. 



SWEDEN. 



47 



Chemicals, etc.— Continued. 

Suprarenal extract and salts and 
preparations thereof. . 

Tar paints and dye extracts mixed 
with a dissolvent or steeping sub- 
stance, such as acetic acid, acetine 
tannic acid, or alum or other base 

■ salts (1198-1199). 

Tartras stibico kalieus. 

Tartras stibico kalieus emetic (1160). 

Teobraninsalic natron. 

Theobromide and its salts and com- 
binations. 

Thomas phosphate and unground,_ 
so-called Thomas slag (1227F). 

Tropacocaine and salts and prepara- 
tions thereof. 

Crotropine. 

Vaccines and sera for medical and 
diagnostic purposes. 

Vaccine and serum. 

Veronal (diethylamine earbamine) 
and its salts. 
Chlorine and chloride of lime. 
Chronometer watches (Fr. 1285-1286). 
Clothing, covers, cloths, textile materials, 
fabrics, and materials for use in the 
preparation thereof. (See also, Foot- 
wear and furs.) 

Blankets of wool, woven, also hemmed 
or edged. 

Blankets, woven, of wool. 

Cotton. 

Cotton, uncarded, also bleached, 
dyed, or chemically purified (474). 

Cotton waste (476). 

Flax, unhackled, hackled; hemp, un- 
hackled, hackled; jute, waste of flax, 
hemp, or jute; oakum, flax, hemp. 

Gloves, woolen, for men. 

Hemp. (See Flax.) 

Jackets for men, other than under- 
clothing, of stocking-machine goods. 

Jackets, so-called Island, sewn or un- 
sewn. 

Jute. (See also, Flax.) 

Jute, fabrics of, without mixture of 
other textile material, sack and 
packing cloth, unbleached and un- 
dyed, which on a surface of 2 cm. 
square contain altogether a maxi- 
mum of 15 warp and weft threads; 
more than 15 warp and weft threads; 
other kinds. 

Jute, yarn of, without mixture of 
other textile material; single, un- 
bleached and undyed, bleached, 
dyed, or printed, with two or more 
threads; with 5 mm. diameter or 
less, unbleached and undyed, 
bleached, dyed, or printed; more 
than .") mm. in diameter. 



clothing, etc.— Continued. 

Oakum. (See Flax.) 

Stockings, woolen, for men. 

Wool, artificial (shoddy and mungo), 
undyed, dyed. 

Wool, fabrics of, also in combination 
with other textile material, with 
the exception of silk. (Free are: 
Press cloth, machine felt, endless or 
round woven for factory purposes; 
carpets, velvet and plush; rugs, not 
specially mentioned (except blankets 
of wool); double woven, not in 
combination with other textile 
materials, bleached or unbleached, 
weighing 100 gr. or less per meter: 
cloth for suits weighing 300 gr. or 
more per square meter and contain- 
ing threads altogether or partially 
of silk, provided the silk represents 
at the most 3 per cent of the cloth's 
entire weight). Prohibited are: 
Other kinds not specially men- 
tioned, weighing more than 500 gr. 
per square meter. 

Wool, fabrics of, other kinds, not 
specially mentioned, weighing more 
than 500 gr. per square meter, cut 
out or stamped, but without sewing. 

Wool, sheeps, undyed, combed; other 
kinds, dyed; combed, other kinds. 

Wool, waste, so-called wool dust in- 
cluded, dyed or undyed. 

Wool, woven blankets of. 

Wool, woven blankel s of, also hemmed 
or edged. 

Woolen gloves for men. 

Woolen stockings for men. 

Woolen yarn containing al least 10 
per cent wool. 

Yarn, of jute, without mixture of 
other textile material, single, un- 
bleached, and undyed, bleached, 
dyed, or printed, with two or more 
threads; with 5 mm. diameter or 
less, unbleached and undyed, 
bleached, dyed, or printed; more 
than 5 mm. in diameter. 

Yarn, woolen, containing at least lit 
per cent wool. 
Coal (see also, Fuel): Anthracite, gas coal 
and coke coal, steam coal; others, peat , 
charcoal, briquettes of coal or peat; other 
fuel not specially mentioned (not retort 
coal, unworked). 
Coco leaves. 

Conveyances. (See Vehicles.) 
Copper. (See Metals, etc.) 
Corn. (See Foodstufl's, etc.) 
Cotton. (See Clothing, etc.) 
Crucibles of black lead mass. 



48 



NEUTRAL EXPORT PROHIBITIONS. 



Drugs (see also Chemicals and surgical 
supplies): Drugs uncompounded or com- 
pounded, saccharine or other artificial 
sweetening matter. 
Dyeing wood and other plants or parts 
thereof that can be used for dyeing, not 
referrable to any other heading, whole 
or in parts, rasped, ground, or broken 
up in any other way; also extracts of 
vegetable dyeing substances whether 
fluid or solid (1195). 
Dyes. (See Chemicals.) 
Electrical igniting apparatus for motor 

cars. . 
Explosives (see also, Arms and ammuni- 
tion and war material): 
Cartridges not specially mentioned, 

loaded or not. 
Detonating caps (ignition caps). 
Dynamite. 

Fuse, blasting, and match cord. 
Fuses and cartridges. 
Fuses, double. 

Fuses, percussion and precipitation. 
Fuses, time. 
Guncotton. 
Gunpowder, common. 
Igniting materials not specially men- 
tioned for projectiles and firearms, 
such as percussion and precipitation 
fuses. 
Match cord and blasting fuse. 
Other explosives not specially men- 
tioned. 
Powder, smokeless. 
Smokeless powder. 
Extracts, tanning. (See Tanning mate- 
rials and chemicals.) 
Fats. (See Oils and greases.) 
Felts and jackets used on pulp and paper 
machines. (Special export licenses may 
be applied for on particular ship- 
ments.) 
Field, spy, and opera glasses and parts 

thereof (Fr. 1263 A and C). 
Firearms. (See Arms and ammunition 

and war material.) 
Foodstuffs (see also Oils): 

Almonds, paper-shell, shelled. 
Beans or peas, preserved (contained 
in hermetically-sealed air-tight ves- 
sels) (168 E and Fr. 168 F). 
Bran: Oats, wheat, corn, rice, rye, 

other. 
Bread not specially mentioned; dogs' 
bread, other kinds. Fancy cakes, 
pastry, crackers, gingersnaps, and I 
other similar kinds of cake and I 
bread which can not be classed as 
confectionery (148 A-B). 
Biscuits, fancy bread. 
Butter, artificial (margarine). 



Foodstuffs— Continued. 

Cakes, fancy, pastry, crackers, ginger- 
snaps, and other similar kinds of 
cake and bread which can not be 
classed as confectionery (148 A-B). 
Cakes (see also, Oil cakes), pressed, of 
cornmeal, acorns, ground or un- 
ground, aracbides or earthnuts. 
Crackers. (See Cakes). 
Eggs (142 A). 
Flour. (See Grain.) 
Forage, not specially mentioned, such 
as draff and wash grains, gluten fod- 
der, flour of corn cakes and other oil 
cakes and corn-germ flour even if 
mixed with animal substances, mo- 
lasses fodder, others. 
Grain, ground: 
Corn, crushed. 
Flour, ground, and groats. 
Flour of arrowroot and other vege- 
tables which can not be referred 
to any other heading. 
Flour, oat, wheat, barley, corn, 

rye, other. 
Groats, oat, wheat, barley, others. 
Groats, not specially mentioned; 
tapioca, others; macaroni and 
vermicelli. 
Malt. 

Rice, ground, groats, flour. 
Grain, unground: 
Barley. 
Corn. 
Oats. 

Other kinds of peas and beans. 
Peas. 

Peas and beans for human food. 
Pelushes. 
Rice, unshelled or only released 

from the outer shell. 
Rye. 

Soya beans. 
Vetches. 
Wheat. 
Grease (goose fat and lard). (See also 

Oils.) 
Hay. (See Straw.) 
Herring, salted or canned. 
Lard. (See Grease.) 
Lard: Natural, artificial, exclusive of 
that which proves to be of Swedish 
origin. 
Lemons. 
Macaroni. 

Margarine (artificial butter). 
Meat, fresh, raw or preserved, except 
on certain conditions (see Report 
from Legation, Stockholm, July 6, 
1915, p. 19, I. B. 858.61311/1). "Meat 
includes parts of cattle, sheep, goats, 
swine, or horses used for human con- 
sumption." 



SWEDEN. 



49 



Foodstuffs— Continued. 
Molasses. 
Oil rakes: 

Cottonseed cakes. 
Earthnut cakes. 
Hempseed cakes. 
Linseed cakes. 
Others. 

Rape and rapeseed cakes. 
Soya bean cakes. 
Sunflower-seed cakes. 
Oleomargarine. 
Oranges. 

Pastry, fancy cakes, crackers, ginger- 
snaps, and other similar kinds of cake 
and bread which can not be classed 
as confectionery (148 A -B). 
Peas or beans, preserved (contained, in 
hermetically sealed or airtight ves- 
sels) (168 E and Fr. 168 F). 
Potatoes of the harvest of the current 
year and coming in during the period 
of February 15 to June 30: other un- 
prepared, cut and dried. 
Potato starch (potato flour). 
Saccharine or other artificial sweeten- 
ing matter. 
Syrup. 
Straw (hay). 
Vermicelli. 
Footwear, tar sewn for men. (See also, 

Hides, etc.) 
Furs: 

Completed, articles of fur as covering or 
lining, such as caps, muffs, boas, fur 
coats, cloaks, and carriage aprons of 
dogs, reindeer, wolves, or common 
sheep. 
Dressed, loose, of dogs, reindeer, 

wolves, or common sheep. 
Dressed, sewn together and partly fin- 
ished articles, such as lining of dogs, 
reindeer, wolves, or common sheep. 
Not dressed, of does, reindeer, wolves, 
or common sheep. 
Gall nuts. (See Tanning materials.) 
Galvanic elements (1068). 
Garments. (See Clothing, etc.) 
Gloves, fencing and boxing, whatever the 

nature of the material. 
Glycerine, raw, purified. 
Gold. (See Metals, etc.) 
Greases. (See Oils, etc.) 
Guncotton. (See Explosives.) 
Guns. (See Arms and ammunition and 

war material.) 
Gutta-percha. (See Pubber.) 
Gutta-percha paper (Fr. 314). 
Gutta-percha plasters, quicksilver and 
quicksilver carbolic. 



Harness. (See Hides, etc.) 
Hides, skins and leather: 

Hides and skins, which can not be 
classed as furs, dressed or partly 
dressed included, sole leather, walrus 
and hippopotamus hides; the best 
parts (trimmed) of sole leather, hem- 
lock, of other sole leather, other 
kinds, leather for machine beltings, 
whole or half hides or pieces thereof; 
sole leather hemlock, other kinds, 
insoled leather, walrus and hippo- 
potamus hides, other kinds, in pieces 
weighing at least one kilogram net, 
colored, lacquered, other kinds. 1 
Hides and skins, which can not be 
classed as furs, unprepared, of cattle, 
fresh or salted, uncleaned, weighing 
more than 14 kilograms apiece, and 
all cleaned or divided, dried, or pre- 
pared with lime; not trimmed, 
weighing more than 3 kilograms 
apiece, and all trimmed or divided. 1 
Leather and skin, pieces of, stamped 
or cut out but not otherwise pre- 
pared, not specially mentioned, of 
soled or insoled leather, backs of 
horsehides or parts thereof, other 
kinds lacquered, of gold or silver 
leather; other kinds, leather for shoe 
uppers; other kinds, with exception 
of strips of leather which may be 
classed under this heading. 
Saddlers' goods, also of textile material 
and other products of leather or skin 
not specially mentioned even in com- 
bination with other materials, such 
as harness, saddles, crops, whips, 
razor strops, etc., also fencing and 
boxing gloves, whatever the nature 
of the material. 
Horn dust. 

Howitzers. (See War material.) 
Igniting apparatus, electrical, for motor 

cars. 
Indigo, artificial (1194B). 
Inner tubes for bicycles or motor cycles, in 
rings, fitted with valves, or with holes 
and reinforcements so that a valve may 
be put on(Fr. 642B). 
Iron junk that can be wrought ; also cast- 
iron junk. 
Iron (see also, Metals, etc.), sheet, cut, or 
uncut, covered with pure or lead-mixed 
pewter. 
Iron, Spiegel and ferromanganese, ferro- 

chrome. 
Junk, cast-iron; also iron junk that can be 
wrought. 



Lathes for preparing metal (Fr. 1006-1011). 
1 Separate hides of reindeer, prepared or unprepared, may be exported. 
23057—16 4 



50 



NEUTRAL EXPORT PROHIBITIONS. 



Lead. S< Ketals, etc.) 
Leather. i>ee Hides, etc.) 
Lubricants. (See Oils, etc.) 
Lumber, unworked, of asp. 
"Luminal." 
Metals and minerals: 

Aluminum. (See Copper.) 

Antimony. (See Copper.) 

Bars. (See Copper.) 

Bars (Fr. 946, 947A, 947B, 947C, 94S). 

Bolts. (See Copper.) 

Brass. (See Copper.) 

Bricks of magnesite (650C). 

Britannia metal. (See Copper.) 

Bronze. (See Copper.) 

Cast iron; also iron junk that can be 
wrought. 

Chrome. (See Copper.) 

Copper (see also, Wire) and alloys of 
zinc, tin, or other baser metals, such 
as brass, bronze, German silver, 
Britannia metal, etc.; aluminum, 
antimony, and chrome; unworked or 
raw* copper, except such refined cop- 
per, as according to certificate of 
origin, has been manufactured from 
raw material (not waste) at a Swed- 
ish refining work; brass, aluminum, 
nickel, alloyed white metals, other 
kinds; copper anodes, casted, also 
furnished with ears, with or without 
holes; junk of all kinds. 

Copper and alloys thereof made with 
zinc, tin, or other base materials, 
such as brass, bronze, German silver, 
Britannia metal, and others; prod- 
ucts thereof not specially mentioned. 

Copper and alloys thereof, such as 
brass, bronze, electroplate, Britannia 
metal, etc.; aluminum. Following 
products thereof: Sheets and bands, 
bars, striking weights, nails and 
rivets, as well as bolts; pipes, wire 
rolled or drawn; cloth. 

Electroplate. (See Copper.) 

Ferrochrome. 

Ferromanganese. 

Gold coins. (Travelers may take with 
them 200 kronor in gold and silver 
coins.) 

Gold in billets. 

Graphite (lead), unprepared, ground 
or separated by washing (34C). 

Iron junk that can be wrought; also 
cast-iron junk. 

Iron sheet, cut or uncut, covered with 
pure or lead-mixed pewter. 

Iron, Spiegel, and ferromanganese, 
ferrochrome. 

Junk. (See Copper and iron and lead.) 

Lead bullets and shot. (See Arms and 
ammunition.) 



Metals and minerals— Continued. 

Lead ore. 

Lead pipes and pieces of pipes. 

Lead, unworked, junk. 

Lead wires and bars, as well as lead 
wool. 

Lead, worked, sheet. 

Magnesite (Fr. 3H). 

Magnesite, bricks of (650C). 

Manganese (21G). 

Metal sheet and tin wares, not specially 
mentioned; other kinds, weighing 
less than 1 kilogram net apiece; other 
kinds. (Free are: Gilded or silver 
plated, enameled, nickeled, cop- 
pered, brassed, bronzed, or lacquer- 
ed, and parts of machines not special- 
ly mentioned.) 

Mineral oils. (See Oils, etc.) 

Nails. (See Copper.) 

Nickel. (See Copper.) 

"Peter's Basin," so called (Fr. 608). 

Pipes. (See Copper.) 

Quicksilver (1167). 

Quicksilver, carbolic. 

Rivets. (See Copper.) 

Silver coins. (Travelers may take 
with them 200 kroner in gold and 
silver coins.) 

Silver in billets. 

Striking weights. (See Copper.) 

Tin. (See Copper.) 

Tin, unwrought; also junk, wrought, 
pipes and conduits and parts thereof, 
in sheets, wires, or bars. 

Tin wares. (See Metal sheet, etc.) 

White metals, alloyed. (See Copper.) 

Zinc. (See Copper.) 

Zinc: Unworked, with the exception 
of such zinc as has been produced 
from raw materials (not junk) at 
Swedish works; also junk, sheet zinc, 
even if covered with another base 
metal; wire and pipes or parts of 
pipes; anodes, also with ears, with or 
without holes; rolled sheet metal, 
with holes (so-called boiler zinc). 
Mortars. (See War materials.) 
Motorcycles. (See Vehicles.) 
Motor vehicles. (See Vehicles.) 
Myrobalanes. (See Tanning materials.) 
Naphthalene. (See Oils, etc.) 
Naphthylamine. (See Oils, etc.) 
Navigation instruments of all kinds, not 

specially mentioned (12C0E). 
Needles for surgical purposes. 
Oak bark. (See Tanning materials.) 
oils and greases: 

Aniline (aniline oil), naphthalene, 
naphthylamine, and paranitranaline 
and salts thereof (1197). 



SWEDEN. 



51 



Oils and greases— Continued. 

Animal fats not taken up elsewhere, 
such as spermaceti, lard of marine 
animals; bone fat, other kinds; wool 
grease, also lanoline; tannic grease. 
Animal oils, such as whale oil, walrus 
oil, and lard oil; whale oil, other than 
fish-liver oil; whale oil; lard oil; other 
kinds. 
Arachid oil. (See Vegetable oils.) 
Benzine. (See Mineral oils.) 
Bone fat. (See Animal fats.) 
Car grease. (See Vaseline, etc.) 
Castor oil. (See Vegetable oils.) 
Ceresine. (See Mineral oils.) 
Cocoa butter. (See Vegetable oils.) 
Coconut oil. (See Vegetable oils.) 
Corn oil. (See Vegetable oils.) 
Cottonseed oil. (See Vegetable oils.) 
Dark oils. (See Mineral oils.) 
Earthnut or arachid oil. (See Vegeta- 
ble oils.) 
Earth wax. (See Mineral oils.) 
Gasoline. (See Mineral oils.) 
Glycerine, raw, purified. 
Hemp oil. (See Vegetable oils.) 
Japan wax. (See Vegetable grease.) 
Lanoline. (See Animal fats.) 
Lard of marine animals. (See Animal 

fats.) 
Lard oil. (See Animal fats.) 
Light oils. (See Mineral oils.) 
Linseed oil. (See Vegetable oil.) 
Lubricating oils. (See Mineral oils.) 
Massut. (See Mineral oils.) 
Mineral oils, au naturel or raw, petro- 
leum waste (massut), other kinds; 
purified, light oils, lubricating oils; 
dark, petrol, benzine and gasoline, 
other kinds; paraffin, raw, purified, 
earth wax, ozokerit; ceresine. 
Oleine and other oil acids, not specially 

mentioned. 
Olive oil. (See Vegetable oils.) 
Ozokerit. (See Mineral oils.) 
Palm oil. (See Vegetable grease.) 
Paraffin. (See Mineral oils.) 
Petrol. (See Mineral oils.) 
Petroleum waste. (See Mineral oils.) 
Purified oils. (See Mineral oils.) 
Rape seed oil. (See Vegetable 

grease.) 
Sesame oil. (See Vegetable grease.) 
Soya oil. (See Vegetable grease.) 
Spermaceti. (See Animal fats.) 
Tallow, best candle and press tallow. 
Tannic grease. (See Animal fats.) 
Turnip and rape seed oil. (See Vege- 
table oils.) 
Turpentine (except that which, 
according to certificate of origin, is 
made in Sweden). 



Oils and greases— Continued. 

Vaseline, also artificial, in barrels, in 
other vessels; machine and car grease; 
lubricating oil containing a mixture 
of greasy oils, mineral oils, provided 
the latter forms the principal part; 
other kinds of lubrications, not 
specially mentioned, in which grease 
or oil are contained. 
Vegetable lats. (See Vegetable grease.) 
Vegetable grease, such as palm oil, 
coconut oil, cocoa butter, Japan wax, 
and other vegetable fats, which at 
ordinary temperature do not exist 
in liquid condition; palm oil, coconu t 
oil; purified, for food, other kinds: 
other vegetable fats. 
Vegetable, greasy oils, linseed oil raw, 
and linseed oil acid, boiled; turnip 
and rape seed oil, also turnip and 
rape seed oil acids; olive oil, earth 
nut or arachid oil, sesame oil and 
cottonseed oil, in barrels, large or 
small; olive oil, earth nut or arachid 
oil, sesame oil, cottonseed oil in other 
vessels; olive oil, other kinds; other 
kinds that can not be classed under 
any other heading, such as castor oil, 
hemp oil, corn oil and soya oil; corn 
oil, soya oil, other kinds. 
Walrus oil. (See Animal oils.) 
Whale oil. (See Animal oils.) 
Wool grease. (See Animal fats.) 
Optical instruments: Field, spy, and opera 
glasses and parts thereof (Fr. 1265A and 
0). 
Paints (see also, Tar under chemicals), 
alizarin, and aniline and other tar paints, 
not specially mentioned (1196). 
Paranitranaline. (See Oils.) 
"Peter's Basin," so-called (Fr. 698). 
Propolis. 

Quebracho wood. (See Tanning mate- 
rials.) 
Rubber: 

Gutta-percha paper (Fr. 314). 
Inner tubes for bicycles or motor cy- 
cles, in rings, fitted with valves, or 
with hobs and reinforcements so that 
a valve may be put on (Fr. 642B). 
Rubber articles for medicinal and hy- 
gienic purposes. 
Rubber, gutta-percha, and balata, un- 
worked; also so-called regenerated 
rubber. 
Rubber plasters (Fr. 545). 
Rubber, soft, products of; tires, solid, 
also in lengths; inner tubes; other 
products of soft rubber, not specially 
mentioned, of rubber only or in com- 
bination with other material: auto- 
mobile tires and parts thereof. 



52 



NEUTRAL EXPORT PROHIBITIONS. 



Rubber— Continued. 

Rubber tires or parts thereof for bicy- 
cles or motorcycle 
Rubber waste and worn rubber noods. 
Saccharine or other artificial sweetening 

matter. 
Salts (see also, Chemicals): 

Andrenalin and preparations thereof. 
Areca. 
Atropamine. 

Bromic acid. (See Bromide.) 
Bromide that can not be referred to 
par 114.") and bromic acid salts (Fr. 
1259). 
Caffeine and preparations thereof. 
Piethylamine carbamine (veronal). 
Duboisine and combinations thereof. 
Epinephrine and preparations thereof. 
Epirenine and preparations thereof. 
Hexamethylane. 
Iodine, which can not be referred to 

par. 1145. 
1'aranephrine and preparations thereof 

(Fr. 1258). 
Quicksilver. 
Quinine. 
Salicylic acid. 
Scopolamine (hycosin). 
Suprarenal. 

Theobromide and combinations. 
Tropacocaine and preparations thereof. 
Scissors and longs for clipping off iron and 

metal wire (Fr. 830-833). 
Shellac (1178C). 
Ships' chronometers (1290). 
Silk for surgical purposes (355). 
Skis and staves. 
SkistaA'es. 
Staves. (See Skis.) 

Surgical supplies (see also, Chemicals, etc): 
Bandage articles, with the exception of 
celluline cotton, bandage gauze, 
bandage cloth and preparations 
thereof; rubber articles for medicinal 
and hygienic purposes. 
Bandage articles (with the exception 
of chemical wood pulp wadding, 
bandage gauze, bandage tissue, and 
articles made from same), and rubber 
articles for medical and hygienic pur- 
poses. 
Catgut (Fr. 1325). 
Catgut, strings of (Fr. 1298). 
Fever thermometers (Fr. 1267). 
< iutta-percha paper (Fr. 314). 
(Jutfa-percha plasters, quicksilver, and 

quicksilver carbolic. 
Needles for surgical purposes (Fr. 1260) 
Rubber plasters (Fr. 545). 
Strings of catgut (Fr. 1298). 
Bilk for surgical supplies. 



Surgical supplies— Continued. 
Thermometers, fever (1267). 
Turpentine (excepl thai which, accord- 
ing to cert ideal e of origin, is made in 
Sweden). 
Survey instruments and recognizable parts 

thereof (Fr. 1260). 
Tanning materials (see also, Chemicals): 
Vegetable, such as oak bark, myroba- 
lanes, and quebracho wood, whole or in 
pieces, ground, rasped, or divided in any 
other way, and extracts ot tanning ma- 
terials, liquid or solid; also gall nuts; val- 
lonea; oak wood, eateeu, quebracho, 
other kinds. 
Tar paints, etc. (See Chemicals.) 
Timber, pine or fir, other timber. 
Tires. (See Vehicles.) 
Tongs and scissors for clipping off iron and 

metal wire (Fr. 830-833). 
Torpedoes. (See War material.) 
Tubes. (See Vehicles.) 
Turpentine (except that which, according 
to certificate of origin, is made in Swe- 
den). 
Twine used by reapers (Fr. 426). 
Vallonea. (See Tamiing materials.) 
Vegetable tamiing materials. (See Tan- 
ning materials.) 
Vehicles and accessories (see also, War 
material): 
Carriages and conveyances, without 
motors, for conveyance of goods, with 
motors, for conveyance of passengers; 
for conveyance of goods. 
Electrical igniting apparatus for motor 

cars. 
Igniting apparatus, electrical, for mo- 
torcars. 
Inner tubes for bicycles or motor cy- 
cles, in rings, fitted with valves, or 
with holes and reinforcements so 
that a valve may be put on (Fr. 
642B). 
Motor cycles, finished parts thereof, 

not specially mentioned. 
Products of soft rubber: 

Automobile tires and parts 

thereof. 
Inner tubes. 

Other products of soft rubber, not 
specially mentioned, of rubber 
only or in combination with 
other material. 
Tires, solid; also in lengths. 
Rubber tires or parts thereof for bicy- 
cles or motor cycles (642A). 
The under part of carriages and vehi- 
cles with motor; also of vehicles with- 
out motor, for transportation of 
goods (Fr. 10981). 



SWITZERLAND. 



53 



Vehicles and accessaries— Continued. 
Wheels for automobiles (Fr. 1098K). 
(Remarks: The prohibition of export of 
vehicles with motor includes also all 
parts of such vehicles not specially 
mentioned.) 
War material (see also, Arms and ammuni- 
tion and explosives), not specially men- 
tioned, and parts thereof; armor, other 
kinds cannon, howitzers and mortars, 
projectiles, cartridge cases; empty, fitted 
for ammunition ready for use; carriages, 
limber carriages and ammunition wag- 
ons, torpedoes, other kinds. Steel tubes 
for gun pipes (Fr. 888-890 and Fr. 894- 
896). Steel pipes for shrapnels (Fr. 755- 
758). 
Pieces of turned steel for shells (Fr. 
S85-896). 
Wire, copper (see also, Copper): 

Twisted into lines or cables, without 
isolation, with a covering of lead or 

From April 22, 1915, and until further notice is given, goods which 
have previously not been prohibited for export, but which are entirely 
or partially manufactured of prohibitions of export, are not to be ex- 
ported from the Kingdom, either by land or sea, provided the quantity 
of the goods or the circumstances connected with the case give rise to 
the suspicion that the goods have been manufactured in order to enable 
the exportation of the material that is prohibited. 

Licenses permitting the export of goods which are on the list of pro- 
hibited exports may not be used after July 27, 1915, in case they were 
granted before May 1, 1915. 

Articles prohibited from exportation will not be allowed to pass in 
postal packets in transit through Sweden. 

SWITZERLAND. 



Wire, copper— Continued. 

other metal, with or without isola- 
tor, also in combination with other 
materials; also electric cables or 
wires, with or without isolator. 
Covered with rubber, gutta-percha, or 
other isolating material, not spe. 
cially mentioned, alone or in combi- 
nation with chips and shavings, pa- 
per, or asbestos; also electric cables 
or wires isolated in such a manner. 
Isolated by means of shavings, paper, 
asbestos, varnish, alone or by means 
of a combination of several of these; 
also electric cables and wires isolated 
in this manner. 
Isolated in other ways; also other elec- 
trical cables and wires (912-921). 
Barbed (Fr. 864§C). 

Wood. (See Timber.) 

Wool. (See Clothing, etc.) 



Arms and their component parts, gun- 
stocks, walnut wood, ammunition, ex- 
plosives, and pyrogenic articles, sulphur, 
saltpeter, and soda. 

Aluminium sulfate and hydrate; salts of 
tin. 

Antimony and other ores, yellow and red 
phosphorus. 

Copper, tin, zinc, lead, iron (scrap iron), 
iron and steel wire of all kinds, rails and 
iron beams. 

Graphite crucibles. 

Telephone apparatus , as well as component 
parts thereof, notably microphones, field 
cables, insulating rubber, electric bat- 
teries; electric ignition plugs for auto- 
mobiles. 

Boats and vehicles with or without motor, 
for the transportation of passengers or 
freight, not including bicycles. 

Sanitary equipment (not including medi- 
cal and surgical instruments), medica- 
ments (except serums and vaccins), dis- 
infectants. 



Surgical bandages and batting of cotton. 

Electric cables of all kinds and insulated 
electric wires. 

Parts of automobiles and benzine motors 
for automobiles. Furniture and tank 
cars returning empty to foreign parts or 
exported in order to be filled may until 
further orders go out without special au- 
thorization. 

Acetanilide (antifebrin). 

Acetone. 

Acetylo-salicylic acid. 

Citric acid. 

Salicylic acid and salicylate of soda. 

Tartaric acid. 

Adrenaline, natural or artificial, and other 
extracts from suprarenal glands (supra- 
renine, paranephrine, epirenane, etc.). 

Agar. 

Aloes. 

Aluminium, acetotartrate of. 

Antipyrine. 

Apomorphine. 



54 



NEUTRAL EXPORT PROHIBITIONS. 



Arecoline and its salts. 

Atropine and its salts. 

Peruvian balsam, natural or artificial. 

Bismuth and its salts. 

Bromin and its salts. 

Caffein and its salts. 

Camphor, raw, refined. 

Chloroform for narcosis. 

Cocaine and its salts and compounds. 

Codeine and its salts. 

Collodion. 

Cresol and its soapy solutions. 

Diethylmalonylurea and its salt, veronal. 

D imethylamidoant ipyrine, pyramidon. 

Dionine. 

Sulfuric ether, pure or crude. 

Formaline (formaldehyde, formic alde- 
hyde, formol), liquid. 

Glycerine, pure. 1 

Heroine. 

Castor oil. 

Iodin and its salts. 

Iodoform. 

Ipecacuanha root. 

Lanoline (wool grease). 

Mastic. 

Mercury and its salts. 

Morphine and its salts. 

Naphthaline. 

Novocains. 

Opium and opium powders, extracts, tinc- 
tures. 

Paraffin, solid or liquid. 

Paraformaldehyde. 

Permanganate of potassium. 

Phenacetine. 

Phenol (phenic acid), pure. 

Phosphorus. 

Phosphorus sesquisulphid. 

Spanish pepper. 

Quinine, chlorohydrate and sulfate of. 

Cinchona (Peruvian bark). 

Rhubarb root. 

Salol. 

Saltpeter. 

Salvarsan, neosalvarsan. 

Santonin. 

Scopolamin (hyoscin). 

Sesquisulphid. 

Sodium chlorate. 



Sodium sulphide. 

Sheet iron. 

Sheet steel, including corrugated, ribbed, 
and warted sheets, corrugated pipes, 
whether plain, galvanized, leaded, 
zincked, varnished, perforated, cut in 
widths, punched, bent, etc., wrought 
iron and steel pipes under 40 centime- 
ters inner diameter. 

Vegetable, animal, and mineral waxes, 
whether raw, bleached, colored, or other- 
wise prepared. 

Spurred rye. 

Worm seed. 

Sulfate of copper. 

Tannin. 

Theobromin and its salts and compounds. 

Tropacocaine and its compounds. 

Vaseline. 

Mineral oils, tar oils, and resinous oils (ben- 
zine, petroleum, petroleum residues; 
naphtha, turpentine, etc.); tar, alcohol, 
fuel of all kinds (anthracite coal, lignite, 
coke, briquettes, firewood, etc.). 

Clothing and articles of equipment for the 
use of troops, 2 such as underclothes, win- 
ter gloves, stockings, footwear for men 
(weighing over 1,200 grams a pair), 8 
woolen blankets. 

Wool, cotton (crude or bleached); jute 
sacks and jute textiles serving in their 
manufacture. 

Horses, mules, and asses, as well as their 
usual harness, and horseshoeing equip- 
ment. 

Live stock (large and small), poultry, and 
military and police dogs. 

Fodder of all kinds (hay, bran, marc [refuse 
from pressing grapes and other fruits], 
etc.), straw, bedding of all kinds, seeds, 
artificial fertilizers, bones, and bone dust. 

Foodstuffs. 4 Biscuits, other fine sweet- 
ened and unsweetened cakes, milk 
(fresh). 

Shoemakers' glue and starch, starch pow- 
der, rubber solution. 

Leather and skins. 5 

Unworked leather of all kinds. 

Boots and shoes of all kinds and parts 
thereof. 



i Until further orders crude glycerine shall not fall under the export emoargo. 

* Cotton goods of all kinds may be exported until further orders without special au- 
thorization. 

8 S je also partially elaborated leather footwear for men, decision of Oct. 20, 1914, here- 
inafter. 

* Until further orders the following foodstuffs may on exported without special au- 
thorization: Soft chjeses, such as Tilsit, Minister, and Monkhead; cheeses like the Schab- 
ziger de Glaris and Appenzell cheeses; hard cheeses in slices weighing 5 kilograms at 
most. Fresh fruits in shipments up to 100 kilograms; fresh and trampled grapes. Snails; 
game animals and game birds. 

5 Skins of wild animals, fresh and dry, may be exported until further orders without 
special authorization. 



SWITZERLAND. 



55 



Partially elaborated leather footwear for 

men. 
Partially elaborated or finished leather 

parts of articles of equipment for troops 

and military teams. 
Searchlights. 
Combed wool. 
Yarn, fabrics, 1 and articles of pure or mixed 

wool. 
The exporation of hardtack without sugar 

is prohibited. 
Chocolate (including cake chocolate) and 

substitutes for coffee also fall under the 

prohibitions. 
Timber — raw, hewn, split, sawed, and 

shaped. 
India rubber and its substitutes. 
Pneumatic and other rubber tires for ve- 
hicles and vel :cipedes. 2 
Saltpeter, not purified. 
Tan, tan bark. 
Waste from wool, combings. 
Artificial wool. 
Crude carborindon. 
Iron pyrites. 
Chromite, ferromanganese, tungsten iron; 

raw. 
Copper, lead, zinc, tin, as well as the alloys 

of these metals, crude or in plates, disks, 

bars, wire, sheets, etc. 
Copper, lead, antimony, and other ores. 
Nickel and its alloys, crude or in plates, 

bars, sheets, wire, etc. 
Aluminum and its alloys, crude or in plates, 

bars, sheets, wire, etc. 
Sulfid of antimony (native antimony). 
Benzine motors for automobiles. 
Parts of automobiles, such as chassis, 

bodies, etc. 
Ignition plugs for automobiles. 
Nitrate and nitrite of lead. 
Compressed protoxid of nitrogen (laughing 

gas), also in liquid form. 
Nitrates, such as nitrate of potassium and 

of sodium, nitrate of calcium. 
Nitrites, such as nitrite of soda, nitrite of 

calcium. 
Nitric acid; mixed acid (mixed with sul- 
furic acid or hydrochloric acid). 
Hydrochloric (muriatic) acid. 
Sulfuric acid; sulfurous acid in solution in 

water or compressed, also liquefied. 
Chlorsulfuric acid (sulfuric chlorhydrin); 

oil of vitriol (smoking sulfuric acid). 
Tannic acid (tannin), gallic acid, etc 8 



Extracts of substances containing tamiin, 
liquid and solid. 

Vegetable and animal oils and fats for in- 
dustrial uses. 

Oils and fats of all kinds, worked up, for lu- 
bricating purposes. 

Cotton and linen rags; old cordage and 
other waste material used in paper man- 
ufacture; maculature (waste paper). 

Rag pulp. 

Kaolin. 

Lens and prism opera glasses. 

Purified pine resin (colophony). 

Candles and wax tapers of all kinds, except 
Christmas-tree candles. 

Soap of all kinds. 

Products of all kinds for lye. 

All kinds of coffee substitutes; chicory 
roots, fresh and dried; torrefied figs. 

Chocolate. (The term "chocolate" figur- 
ing under letter i of article 1 of the deci- 
sion of the Federal Council of Sept. 18, 
1914, should be stricken out.) 

Vinegar, aceticacid, and essence of vinegar, 
containing more than 12 per cent of pure 
acetic acid. 

Articles made of soft rubber, even com- 
bined with other substances, with the 
exception of elastic textiles. 

Retort carbon. 

Tinplate in sheets or cut out. 

Electric cables of all kinds and insulated 
electric wires, of pure or alloyed copper. 

Catechu, including gambier; kino. 

Coal-tar pitch. 

Pyrolignite of lime. 

Acetic acid, crude or purified, with an em- 
pyreumatic odor. 

Flax, hemp, jute, ramine (Chinese nettle), 
Manila hemp, and other similar textile 
substances and their waste products, 
crude, steeped, peeled or batcheled, 
combed, bleached, colored, etc.; oakum. 

Yarns of the textile sul stances named 
under No. 396; unbleached. 

Sulfuric acid which has already been used 
as a fertilizer or for other purposes. 

Timber, raw, hewn, split, sawed, and 
shaped. 

Ash wood, crude, resplit, squared, or 
sawed. 

Calves' stomachs, fresh or dried. 

Unworfced rennet (natural rennet), or pow- 
dered rennet, extract of rennet or other 
rennet preparations. 



» Until further orders unbleached fabrics of com jed wool may be exported without 
special authorization. 

2 By the decision of January 22, 1915, the export embargo was extended to all articles 
made of soft rubber, even when combined with other substances , with the exception o f 
■elastic textile fabrics. 

3 See also catechu, including gambier, and kino. 



56 



NET TRAL EXPORT PROHIBITIONS. 



Hardtack without sugar, even pulverized. 

Twii e of Max. hemp, jute, ramie (Chinese 
nettle i. Manila hemp, and other similar 
textile substances of No. 396, as well as 
their waste products: 

Tried out with alum, etc.; washed in 

lye: bleached. 
Colored, printed. 
Twined. 

Arranged for retail (on spools, in balls 
or skeins, etc.). 

Ropemaker's articles made of the textile 
substam es named under No. 396 al o\ e: 
Ropes, cables. 
Others, except nets. 

.Mica in sheets or tablets, oval or rectangu- 
lar (cleavage mica): Crude, not glued to- 
gether. 

Articles of all kinds, including tubes, of 
aluminum or aluminum alloys. 

Lac (varnish) in flakes, even ground. 

Chlorate of potassium. 

Blue vitriol and so-calledfungivorous prod- 
ucts; ammoniacal sulfate of copper; stea- 
tite with sulfate of copper. 

Boots and shoes, all kinds, and parts 
thereof. 

Camphor, raw, refined. 

Cheese (all kinds) except Glarner, Kraeu- 
terk-ase or Schabzeiger, limited to three- 
fourths of normal exportation, one-third 
of which limit may be exported from 
April 1 to August 1, by members of 
cheese exporting association. 

Cotton batting. 

Crucibles. 

Graphite. 

Surgical bandages. 

Additional export embargoes enforced 
June 15, 1915: 

Raw tobacco leaves, ribs, and stems. 

Crape juice and wine containing not over 
15 per cent alcohol, in barrels. 

Used petroleum and oil barrels of wood or 
sheet metal. 

Ordinary carded or glued cotton waste. 

Pocket lamp battery carbons. 

Iron nails for mountain shoes. 

Iron or steel ball bearings, parts thereof. 

Half finished and manufactured articles, 
including tubes of copper, lead, zinc, tin, 
nickel, and their alloys, except ma- 
chines. 

Mechanical tools. 

Vehicles. 

Watches. 

Clocks. 

Instruments and apparatus. 

Cerium. 

Wrought iron and steel flasks for gases. 

Electric transformers, parts thereof. 



New and used iron lathes, also with other 
component materials, parts thereof . 

Medical and surgical instruments and ap- 
paratus. 

Fever thermometers, glasses thereof. 

All natural and artificial raw and manu- 
factured tanning materials, including 
chromium sulphate and solutions thereof. 

Vegetal le and animal raw products 
for pharmaceutical purposes, whether 
natural, crushed, or otherwise mechani- 
cally treated. 

Manufactured pharmaceutical products 
including condensed plant juices, I al- 
sams, resins, unmanufactured fats, oils, 

Chemical raw products, as carrageen moss, 
fleawort, etc. 

Lemon juice. 

Gums of all kinds. 

Copal. 

Dammar, sandarac, and other gum-resins. 

Bleached, distilled, powdered, and soft 
resins for technical purposes, including 
raw pitch, turpentine, galipot, etc. 

All manufactured resins, including brew- 
ers' pitch, cobblers' wax, etc., and pow- 
dered resin. 

Magnesite. 

Alums. 

Borax. 

Potash. 

Water glass. 

Formic acid. 

Coal-tar derivatives and auxiliary raw 
products for aniline colors, as benzol, 
chlorobenzol, naphthalene, anthracene, 
phenol, toluol, benzoic acid, etc. 

Analine, raw and manufactured. 

Aniline oils, salts, and coml inations for 
manufacturing colors, as toluidine, dime- 
thyl-aniline, phthalic acids, etc. 

Resorcin. 

Egg and blood albumen and vitellus for 
technical purposes. 

All waxes, as floor wax, leather polish, and 
oils. 

Cleaning pomades, soaps, and similar tur- 
pentinous fatty sul stances. 

Additional embargoes enforced July 5,1915: 

Fresh, dried, or salted animal intestines 
and bladders. 

Compressed fluid or gaseous chlorine ir« 
wrought iron or steel flasks. 

Regenerated, crushed, or doughlike man- 
ganese superoxide. 

Sodium phosphate, methyl alcohol, graph 
ite, crushed, powder, pressed, etc. 

Following enforced July 16, 1915: 

Gold , pure or alloy, fragment s, chips, ashes, 
refuse and dross; also unmanufactured, 
coined, rolled into foils and strips. 



IV. 

EMBARGOES BY BELLIGERENT STATES. 

General. — Not only have the neutral States placed 
restrictions upon export but the belligerent States have 
established embargoes upon certain goods to certain 
ports, or even the transit of certain goods. Such embar- 
goes necessarily interfere seriously with the free move- 
ment of commerce. The extent to which ambargoes 
have been applied is illustrated in the British and German 
regulations. 

In addition to the embargoes, belligerents have issued 
proclamations in which were made known the names of 
persons or firms in certain countries to which exports 
might be made. 

BRITISH EMBARGOES. 

[Corrected according to the latest available information.] 

Department of State, 

August 28, 1915. 

Whereas by section 8 of "The customs'and inland revenue act, 1879," 
it is enacted that the exportation of arms, ammunition, and gunpowder, 
military and naval stores, and any articles which we shall judge capa- 
ble of being converted into or made useful in increasing the quantity 
of military or naval stores, provisions, or any sort of victual which may 
be used as food for man may be prohibited by proclamation; 

And whereas by section 1 of ''The exportation of arms act, 1900." 
it is enacted that we may by proclamation prohibit the exportation 
of all or any of the following articles, namely, arms, ammunition, mili- 
tary and naval stores, and any article which we shall judge capable 
of being converted into or made useful in increasing the quantity of 
arms, ammunition, or military or naval stores, to any country or place 
therein named whenever we shall judge such prohibition to be expe- 
dient in order to prevent such arms, ammunition, military or naval 
stores being used against our subjects or forces or against any forces 
engaged or which may be engaged in military or naval operations in 
cooperation with our forces; 

An whereas by section 1 of "'The customs (exportation prohibition ) 
act, 1914," it is enacted that section 8 of the aforesaid •Customs and 
inland revenue act, 1879," shall have effect whilst a state of war in 

57 



58 BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 

which we are engaged exists as if in addition to the articles therein 
mentioned there were included all other articles of every description; 

And whereas it is further enacted by section 2 of "The customs 
(exportation prohibition) act, 1914," that any proclamation or order 
in council made under section 8, as so amended, of "The customs and 
inland revenue act, 1879," may, whilst a state of war exists, be varied 
or added to by an order made by the Lords of the Council on the recom- 
mendation of the board of trade; 

And whereas by section 1 of "The customs (exportation restriction) 
act, 1914," it is enacted that section 1 of "The exportation of arms act, 
1900," shall have effect whilst a state of war in which we are engaged 
exists as if, in addition to the articles therein mentioned, there were 
included all other articles of every description; 

And whereas it is further enacted by section 2 of "The customs 
(exportation restriction) act, 1914," that any proclamation made under 
section 1 of the exportation of arms act, 1900, may, whether the procla- 
mation was made before or after the passing of the act now in recital, 
be varied or added to by an order made by the Lords of the Council on 
the recommendation of the board of trade; 

And whereas a proclamation dated the 3d February, 1915, and vari- 
ous orders dated, respectively, the 2d and the 18th March, the 15th, 
the 21st, and the 26th April, the 6th and the 20th May, the 2d and the 
24th June, and the 8th and the 19th July, 1915, prohibiting the expor- 
tation of certain articles therein referred to from the United Kingdom 
to certain or all destinations, have been issued in pursuance of the 
aforesaid powers; 

And whereas it is expedient that the said proclamation and orders 
should be consolidated, with amendments and additions, and that such 
proclamation and orders should be revoked; 

And whereas we have deemed it expedient to prohibit the exporta- 
tion of the articles hereinafter enumerated: 

Now, therefore, we have thought fit, by and with the advice of our 
Privy Council, to issue this our royal proclamation, declaring, and it is 
hereby declared, that the above-mentioned proclamation and orders 
be and the same are hereby revoked; 

And we have further thought fit, by and with the advice aforesaid, 
and in virtue and in exercise of the powers aforesaid, further to declare, 
and it is hereby declared, as follows: 

(A) That the exportation of the fol- Aircraft of all kinds, etc.— Continued. 

lowing goods be prohibited to all des- High-tensile steel tubes. 

tinations: Aeroplane instruments (aneroids, baro- 

Air craft of all kinds, including aeroplanes, graphs, revolution indicators), 

airships, and balloons and their corapo- Aeroplane turnbuckles. 

nent parts, together with accessories and Steel stampings, 

articles suitable for use in connection Aeroplane engines and parts, 

with air craft, including: Animals, pack, saddle, and draft, suit- 

Noninflammable "celluloid " sheet (or able for use in war. 

similar transparent material nonsolu- Cannon and other ordnance and machine 

ble in lubricating oil, petrol, or guns and parts thereof, 

water). Capsicum and oleo-resin of capsicum. 

Aeroplane dope. Carbons, suitable for searchlights. 



GENERAL BRITISH. 



59 



Carriages and mountings for cannon and 
other ordnance, and for machine guns 
and parts thereof. 
Cartridges, charges of all kinds, and their 

component parts. 
Celluloid. 

Chemicals, drugs, dyes and dyestufTs, me- 
dicinal and pharmaceutical preparations, 
and tanning extracts, namely: 
Aceto-celluloses. 
Acetone. 

Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). 
Alcohol, methylic. 
Ammonium nitrate, perchlorate and 

and sulphocyanide. 
Amyl acetate. 

Anthracene oil and green oil. 
Antipyrine (phenazone). 
Antitetanus serum. 
Belladonna, its alkaloids and prepara- 
tions, including belladonna plaster. 
Benzol. 

Caffeine and its salts. 
Calcium acetate and all other metallic 

acetates. 
Cantharides and its preparations. 
Carbolic acid. 
Carbon disulphide. 
Chloral and its preparations, including 

chloramid. 
Chlorates, perchlorates, and nitrates, 

all metallic. 
Coal-tar distillation products, being the 
fractions of the distillation products 
of coal tar between benzol and cresol. 
Coal-tar products for use in dye manu- 
facture, including aniline oil and ani- 
line salt. 
Collodion. 

Cresol, and all preparations of cresol 
(including cresylic acid) and nitro- 
cresol (except saponified cresol). 
Cyanamide. 
Diethylbarbituric acid (veronal) and 

veronal sodium. 
Dimethylaniline. 
Dyes and dyestuffs manufactured from 

coal-tar products. 
Emetin and its salts. 
Ergot of rye, not including liquid ex- 
tract or other medicinal preparations 
of ergot. 
Eucaine hydrochlor. 
Fusel oil (amyl alcohol). 
Gentian and its preparations. 
Glycerine, crude and refined. 
Henbane and its preparations. 
Hydroquinone. 
Indigo, natural. 
Ipecacuanha root. 
Manganese, peroxide of. 



Chemicals, etc.— Continued. 
Mercury. 
Methylaniline. 
Neo-salvarsan. 
Nitric acid. 
Nitrotoluol. 
Novocain. 

Opium and its preparations and alka- 
loids. 
Paraffin, liquid medicinal. 
Paraformaldehyde and trioxymethy- 

lene. 
Paraldehyde. 
"Peptone Witte." 
Phenacetin. 

Picric acid and its components. 
Potash, caustic. 
Potassium cyanide. 
Potassium permanganate. 
Protargol, not including silver protein- 
ate. 
Pyridine. 

Saccharin (including "saxin"). 
Salicylic acid, methyl salicylate, so- 
dium salicylate, and theobromine- 
sodium salicylate. 
Salol. 
Salvarsan. 

Santonin and its preparations. 
Sulphonal. 

Sulphur and spent oxide of sulphur. 
Sulphur dioxide, liquefied. 
Sulphuric acid. 

Tanning, extracts for use in, the follow- 
ing: 
Chestnut extract. 
Oak wood extract. 
Thorium, oxide and salts of. 
Thymol and its preparations. 
Toluol and mixtures containing toluol. 
Trephenyl phosphate. 
Trional. 
Valonia. 
Coal tar, crude. 

Compasses, other than ships' compasses. 
Copper and brass solid-drawn tubes. 
Cotton fabric, suitable for air craft. 
Cotton waste of all descriptions. 
Diamonds, rough, suitable for industrial 

purposes. 
Explosives of all kinds. 
Field glasses and telescopes. 
Firearms, rifled, of all kinds, and their 

component parts. 
Flax fabric, suitable for air craft. 
Flax, raw. 

Forage and food which may be used for 
animals, namely: 
Beans, including haricot beans, Burma 

and Rangoon beans. 
Brewers' and distillers' grains. 



GO 



BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 



Forage, etc. -Continued. 

Brewers' dried yeast. 
Cakes and meals, the following, 
namely: 
Coconut and poonac cake. 
Compound cakes and meal. 
Cottonseed cake, decorticated and 
undecorticated, and cottonseed 
meal. 
Gluten meal or gluten feed. 
Linseed cake and meal. 
Maize germ meal. 
Maize meal and flour. 
Hay. 
Lentils. 
Maize. 
Malt dust , malt flour, culms, sprouts, 

or combings. 
OfTals of corn and grain, including: 
Bran and pollard. 
Mill dust and screenings of all 

kinds. 
Rice meal (or bran) and dust. 
Sharps and middlings. 
Latent and proprietary cattle foods of 

all kinds. 
Straw. 
Glass for optical instruments. 
Gold beaters' skin. 

Crindery, the following articles of, used in 
the making of boots and shoes: 
Brass rivets, for use by hand or ma- 
chine. 
Cutlan studs, for use by hand or ma- 
chine. 
Heel attaching pins, for use by hand 

or machine. 
Lasting tacks or rivets, including iron 
shoe rivets, for use by hand or ma- 
chine. 
Steel bills, for use by hand or machine. 
Heel tips. 
Heel tip nails. 
Hobnails of all descriptions. 
Protector studs. 
Screwing wire. 
Harness and saddlery which can be used 
for military purposes, including metal 
fittings for such harness or saddlery. 
Heliographs. 

Hemp, other than manila hemp. 
Hides of cattle, buffaloes, and horses, and 

calfskins. 
Iron pyrites. 
Jute piece goods and bags and sacks made 

made of jute. 
Jute yarns. (Applications may be made 
for special export license for jute articles.) 
Khaki woolen cloth. 

Leather, undressed or dressed, suitable for 
saddlery, harness, military boots or 
military clothing. 



Magnetos. 

Meat, namely, beef and mutton, fresh or 

refrigerated. 
Mercury. 
Oats. 

Periscopes. 
Projectiles of all kinds and their component 

parts. 
Range finders and parts thereof. 
Sheepgut. 
Silk cloth, silk braid, silk thread, suitable 

for cartridges. 
Silk noils. 

Silk shantung in the piece. 
Spirits, methylated. 
Spirits of a strength of not less than 43 

degrees above proof. 
Swords, bayonets, and other arms (not 

being firearms) and parts thereof. 
Tarpaulins and wagon covers. 
Wheat, wheat flour, and wheat meal. 
Wood, namely: 
Ash. 

Ash three-ply wood. 
Spruce. 
Walnut wood. 
Zinc (including zinc ashes, zinc rods, zinc 
sheets, spelter and spelter dross). 
(B) That the exportation of the fol- 
lowing goods be prohibited to all desti- 
nations abroad other than British pos- 
sessions and protectorates: 
Accoutrements, namely: 
Web equipment. 
Leather belts. 
Leather bandoliers. 
Leather pouches. 

Other leather aritcles of personal equip- 
ment suitable for military purposes. 
Alunite. 
Blankets, colored, exceeding 3j pounds in 

weight, containing wool. 
Boneash. 

Boots, heavy, for men. 
Camp equipment, articles of, including 
tents and their component parts, wooden 
huts, ovens, camp kettles, buckets, 
lanterns, and horse rugs. 
Carts, two-wheeled, capable of carrying 1.5 
cwt. or over, and their component parts. 
Chemicals, drugs, medicinal and pharma- 
ceutical preparations, namely: 
Acetanilide. 

Aconite and its preparations and alka- 
loids. 
Ammonia and its salts, whether simple 
or compound, other than ammonium 
nitrate, perchloratc and sulpho- 
cyanide. 
Ammonia, liquified. 
Ammonia liquor. 
Antimony, sulphides and oxides of. 



EXCEPTIONS TO BRITISH POSSESSION^. 



Gl 



Chemicals, etc.— Continued. 

Benzoic acid (synthetic) and ben- 

zoates. 
Bromine and alkaline bromides. 
Calcium carbide. 
Carbon tetrachloride. 
Caustic soda-sodium. 
Chloride of tin. 

Chlorine (including liquefied chlorine). 
Copper iodide. 
Copper, suboxide of. 
Copper sulphate. 
Cresol (saponified). 
Formic aldehyde. 
Hexamethylene tetramin (urotropin) 

and its preparations. 
Hydrobromic acid. 
Hydrochloric acid. 
Magnesium chloride and sulphate . 
Mercury compounds and preparations 

(other than nitrate of mercury). 
Oxalic acid. 

Oxides and salts (other than chlorates, 
perchlorates and nitrates) of the fol- 
lowing metals: 
Aluminium. 
Cobalt. 
Nickel. 
Tungsten. 
Phosphorus and its compounds. 
Potash salts (except potassium chlo- 
rate, cyanide, nitrate (saltpeter), 
perchlorate, and permanganate). 
Prussiate of soda. 
Sodium. (See Caustic soda.) 
Sodium hyposulphite (thiosulphate). 
Tartaric acid, cream of tartar, and 

alkaline tartrates. 
Urea and its compounds. 
Zinc chloride and sulphate. 
Coal (including anthracite and steam, gas, 
household, and all other kinds of coal) 
and coke. 
Coal sacks. 

Deer skins, dressed and undressed. 
Draw plates, jeweled, for drawing steel 
wire, and diamonds prepared for use 
therein. 
Electros for printing purposes, composed 

of lead, antimony, and copper. 
Ferro alloys, including: 
Ferrochrome. 
Fer r omanganese . 
Ferromoly bdenum . 
Ferronickel. 
Ferrotitanium. 
Ferrotungsten. 
Ferrovanadium. 
Ferrosilicon. 
Forges, portable. 
Goat skins, dressed and undressed. 



Graphite, including foundry (molding) 
plumbago and plumbago for lubricating. 
Guanos. 

Hemp, the following manufactures of: 
Cloth. 

Cordage and twine, not including cord- 
age or twine of manila hemp or reaper 
or binder twine. 
Horseshoes. 
Hosiery needles. 
Jute, raw and carded. 
Lubricants. 

Maps and plans of any place within the 
territory of any belligerant, or within 
the area of military operations, on a scale 
of 4 miles to 1 inch or on any larges scale, 
and reproductions on any scale by pho- 
tography or otherwise of such maps or 
plans. 
Metals and ores, namely : 

Aluminium, manufactures of alumi- 
nium, and alloys of aluminium. 
Antimony and alloys of antimony, 

including antifriction metal. 
Bauxite. 
Chrome ore. 
Cobalt. 

Copper unwrought and part wrought, 
all kinds, including alloys of copper 
(such as brass, gun metal, naval 
brass and delta metal, phosphor 
copper, phosphor bronze and solder 
containing copper), copper and brass 
circles, slabs, bars, ingots, scrap, 
rods, and plates, and also wrought 
copper of the following descriptions: 
Copper and brass pipes, sheets, con- 
denser plates, copper wire, brass 
wire, bronze wire, perforated brass 
sheets, perforated brass linings, and 
copper foil. 
Lead, pig, sheet or pipe (including 

solder containing lead) . 
Lead ore. 

Manganese and manganese ore. 
Molybdenum and molybdenite. . 
Nickel and nickel ore. 
Scheelite. 
Selenium. 

Steel containing tungsten or molyb- 
denum or both, and any tools or 
other articles made from such steel. 
Tin and tin ore. 
Tungsten. 
Vanadium. 
Wolframite. 
Wulfenite. 
Zinc ore. 
Mica (including mica splittings) and mica- 
nit e. 
Mineral jellies. 



62 



BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 



Mines and parts thereof. 

Oil, blast furnace (except creosote and 

creosote oil). 
Oil fuel, shale. 
Oil,neat's-foot. 

Oils and fats, all animal and vegetable, 
including fatty acids, but not including 
essential oils. 
Oil. whale (train, blubber, sperm), seal oil, 
shark oil, fish oil generally, and mixture 
or compounds of any of the foregoing. 
Oleaginous nuts, seeds, and products, 
namely: 
Castor beans. 
Coconuts. 
Copra. 
Cottonseed. 
Groundnuts, earthnuts, or peanuts 

(arachides). 
Hempseed. 
Linseed. 

Palm nuts and palm kernels . 
Poppy seeds. 
Rape or colzaseed. 
Sesame seed. 
Soya beans. 
Sunflower seed. 
Paraffin wax, wax candles, and waxed 

paper. 
Petroleum, fuel oil (including turpentine 

substitute and paraffin oil). 
Petroleum, gas oil. 

Petroleum spirit and motor spirit (in- 
cluding Shell spirit). 
Phosphate rock, viz: 
Apatites. 

Phosphates of lime and alumina. 
Pigskins, dressed or undressed. 
Provisions and victuals which may be used 
as food for man, namely: 
Animals, living, for food. 
Barley, barley meal, and pearled and 

pot barley. 
Butter. 
Cheese. 
Eggs in shells. 
Lard and imitation lard. 
Malt. 

Margarine. 

Milk, condensed, sweetened or not. 
Oatmeal and rolled oats. 
Peas, except tinned and bottled peas 
and peas packed in cardboard boxes 
and similar receptacles. 
Sugar, refined, and candy. 
Sugar, unrefined. 



Rubber (including raw, waste, and re- 
claimed rubber, solutions containing 
rubber, jellies containing rubber or any 
other preparations containing rubber, 
and also including balata, gutta percha. 
and the following varieties of rubber, 
viz: Borneo, Guayule, Jelutong, Palem- 
bang, Pontianac, and all other substances 
containing caoutchouc) and goods made 
wholly or partly of rubber, including 
tires for motor vehicles and for cycles, 
together with articles or materials espe- 
cially adapted for use in the manufacture 
or repair of tires. 

Searchlights. 

Sheepskins, tanned. 

Sheepskins, whether woolen or not. 

Signaling lamps of all kinds capable of 
being used for signaling Morse or other 
codes, and component parts of such 
lamps. 

Submarine sound signaling apparatus. 

Surgical bandages and dressings (including 
butter cloth). 

T ann ing substances of all kinds (including 
extracts for use in tanning) except ex- 
cept chestnut extract, oak-wood extract, 
and valonia. 

Telephone sets and parts thereof, field serv- 
ice telegraph and telephone cable. 

Torpedo nets. 

Torpedo tubes. 

Torpedoes and parts thereof. 

Tungsten filamentsfor electric lamps. 

Turpentine (oil and spirit). 

Uniform clothing and military equipment. 

Vessels, boats, and craft of all kinds; float- 
ing docks and their component parts. 

Wagons, four-wheeled, capable of carrying 
1 ton or over and their component parts. 

"Wax, mineral and vegetable, except 
carnauba wax. 

Wire, barbed, and galvanized wire, and 
implements for fixing and cutting the 
same (but not including galvanized wire 
netting). 

"Wire, steel, of all kinds. 

"Wood tar, and wood tar oil. 

"Wool, raw (sheep's and lamb's). 1 

"Wool tops. ' 

"Wool noils. 

Wool waste. 

"Woolen rags, applicable to other uses than 

manure, pulled or not. 
Woolen and worsted cloth suitable for uni- 
form clothing, not including women's 
dress stuffs or cloth with pattern. 



Rope (steel wire) and hawsers. 

i Board of Trade authorizes shipment British wool to United States on condition eq uiv- 
alent tops and yards are exported to Great Britain. Arrangements limited to Members 
Textile Alliance. (See telegram of July 1, 1915, from Con. Gen. at London.) 



EXCEPTIONS TO BRITISH ALLIES. 



63 



Woolen and worsted yarns. 
Woolen jerseys, cardigan jackets, woolen 
glomes, woolen socks, and men's woolen 
under ;vear of all kinds. 
(C) That the exportation of the fol- 
lowing goods be prohibited to all foreign 
countries in Europe and on the Mediter- 
ranean and Black Seas, other than 
France, Russia (except Baltic ports), 
Italy, Spain, and Portugal: 
Anchors and chain cables. 
Armor plates, armor quality castings, and 

similar protective material. 
Asbestos. 

Bags and sacks of all kinds (except bags 
and sacks made of jute, and paper bags). 
Bicycles and their component parts. 
Binder twine. 

Bladders, casings, and sausage skins. 
Camphor. 
Carnauba wax. 
Chemicals, drugs, etc.: 
Acetic acid. 

Antimony, compounds of, except sul- 
phides and oxides of antimony. 
Arsenic and its compounds. 
Bichromate of soda. 
Bismuth and its salts (except bismuth 

nitrate). 
Iodine and its preparations and com- 
pounds. 
Nux vomica and its alkaloids and prep- 
arations. 
Sodium cyanide. 
Sodium sulphide. 

Tin, compounds of, other than chloride 
of tin and tin ore. 
Charcoal and peat. 

ChronDmeters and all kinds of nautical in- 
struments. 
Compasses for ships, and parts thereof, in- 
cluding fittings, such as binnacles. 
Cotton, raw. 
Cotton yarn and thread. 
Firearms, unrifled, for sporting purposes. 
Flaxen canvas, namely: 
Hammock canvas. 
Kitbag canvas. 
Merchant navy canvas. 
Royal navy canvas. 
Tent canvas. 
Forage and food which may be used for ani- 
mals, namely: 
Buckwheat. 

Cakes and meals, the following, namely: 
Biscuit meal. 
Calf meal. 

Fish meal and concentrated fish. 
Groundnut or earthnut cake and 

meal. 
Hempseed cake and meal. 
Husk meal. 



! Forage, etc. — Continued. 

Cakes and meals— Continued. 
Locust bean meal. 
Meat meal. 

Palm nut cake and meal. 
Poppy seed cake and meal. 
Rapeseed or colzaseed cake and 

meal. 
Sesame seed cake and meal. 
Soya bean cake and meal. 
Sunflower seed cake and meal. 
Chick-peas, pigeon peas, gram or dhol. 
Dari. 
Millet. 

Molasses for cattle feeding. 
Green forage and lupin seeds. 
[ Grindstones, carborundum wheels, and 
emery wheels. 
Gums, resins, balsams, and resinous sub- 
stances of all kinds, except such as con- 
tain caoutchouc. 
Hair, animal, of all kinds, and tops, noils, 

and yarns of animal hair. 
Implements and apparatus designed exclu- 
sively for the manufacture of munitions 
of war, for the manufacture or repair of 
arms or of war material for use on land or 
sea, namely, plant for cordite and am- 
munition factories, namely: 
Cordite presses. 
Dies for cartridge cases. 
Gauges for shells or cartridges. 
Incorporators. 
Lapping machines. 
Rifling machines. 
Wire-winding machines. 
Intrenching tools and intrenching imple- 
ments, namely, pickaxes and grubbers, 
whether of combination pattern or other- 
wise; spades and shovels of all descrip- 
tions; helves and handles for pickaxes, 
grubbers, spades, and shovels; and ma- 
chinery for trenching and ditching. 
Lacs of all kinds, including shellac, gum 
lac, seed lac, stick lac, and other forms of 
lac, but not including lac lye. 
Lignum-vitse. 
Linen close canvas. 
Linen duck cloth. 
Lupin seeds and green forage. 
Machinery, metal-working. 
Mahogany. 

Mess tins and water bottles for military use. 
Metals and ores, namely: 

Copper compounds, except copper ni- 
trate (exportation of which is pro- 
hibited to all destinations), copper 
iodide, copper sulphate, and subox- 
ide of copper (exportation of which is 
prohibited to all destinations other 
than British Possessions and Protec- 
torates). 



64 



BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 



Metals and ores— Continu >d. 
Copper ore. 
Iron ore. 

Iron, haematite pig. 
Monazite sand. 
Motor vehicles of all kinds, including mo- 
tor bicycles and their component parts 
and accessories. 
Packings, engine and boiler (including 

slagwool). 
Peat. 

Provisions and victuals which may be used 
as food for man, namely: 
Bacon. 

Cassava powder and tapioca. 
Cocoa powder. 

Cocoa, raw, of all kinds and all prepa- 
rations of cocoa, including cocoa 
husks, cocoa shells, and chocolate. 
Coffee. 
Ham. 

Herrings, cured or salted, in barrels or 
cases, including dry salted herrings 
and herrings in brine. 
Mandioca or tapioca flour. 
Onions. 
Pork. 
Potatoes. 



Provisions, etc. — Continued. 
Rice and rice flour. 
Rye, rye flour and meal. 
Sago and sago meal and flour. 
Soups, compressed and desiccated. 
Tinned and potted meats and extract 

of meat. 
Vegetables, fresh, except peas 
Railway material, both fixed and rolling 

stock. 
Rattans. 

Seeds, clover and grass. 
Shipbuilding materials, namely: 
Boiler tubes. 
Condenser tubes. 
Iron and steel castings and forgings for 

hulls and machinery of ships. 
Iron and steel plates and sectional ma- 
terials for shipbuilding. 
Marine engines and parts thereof. 
Ships' auxiliary machinery. 
Sounding machines and gear. 
Telegraphs, wireless telegraphs, and tele- 
phones, material for. 
Terneplates. 

Tin plates, including tin boxes and tin 
canisters for food packing. 



[Translation.] 

Department of State, 
Washington. August, t915. 

German Export and Transit Embargo Lists. 

Remarks: This list is not intended to be absolutely complete as, 
for example, it has not been feasible to enumerate all colors and dye- 
stuffs, copper products, parts of torpedoes, and products of kalisalts. 

[Issued Apr. 21, 1915, and corrected to May 10, lOlo, by the imperial statistical office. 1 

Classified List of Articles Affected by the Export and Transit Embargo.' 

i. animals and animal products. (b) Meat, meat products, fish (not live). 

(a to c, export forbidden.) Poultry, slaughtered, carved, etc., goose 

. _ . . . 7 breasts, drumsticks, and livers. 

(a) Lmngammals. Qame 1)irdSj nQt ^ cMved> eU . 

Poultry (ducks, geese, chickens, pigeons, Fish, not live, fresh, salted, dried, smoked, 
etc.). 



etc. 
Canned fish. 
Meat, fresh, prepared (mutton, veal, lamb, 

beef, pork, goat, ham, bacon); entrails 

of cattle (fresh and dried): entrails, 

eatable. 
Meat broth, inspissated. 
Meat broth tablets. 
Meat extract. 
Canned meat . 
Meat peptone. 

Game animals, not live, carved, etc. 
Calves stomachs in every form. 
Rennet. 
I Sausage, 
i The articles appearing hereinbelow under la to Ic and under II are affected only by 
export embargoes. 



Fish. 

Rabbits. 

Horses, including colts. 

Mules, including colts. 

Asses, including colts. 

Horned cattle (steers, heifers, calves, cows^ 

oxen, beefers, bulls). 
Sheep, lambs. 
Hogs, also sucking pigs. 
Goats. 



GERMAN ANIMAL PRODUCTS. 



65 



(c) Milk, butter, animal fats. 
(Lanolin and wool grease. See Sec. IVe.) 

Butter. 

Buttermilk. 

Intestinal tallow. 

Intestinal fat. 

Eggs of poultry and game birds. 

White and yolk of egg. 

Fats, animal, not specially mentioned 
above or below. 

Fish blubber. 

Fish oil. 

Goose fat, goose lard. 

Tanner's grease (degras), natural and arti- 
ficial, also that made of oxidized fish oil 
(moellon). 1 

Graves, greaves, for eating purposes. 

Cheese. 

Neat's foot grease. 

Neat's foot oil. 1 

Bone grease. 

Bone oil. 1 

Artificial butter (oleomargarine). 

Artificial lard. 

Glue fat. 

Oleomargarine. 

Milk, fresh, sterilized, hermetically sealed. 

Milk, condensed. 

Whey. 

Oleomargarine. 

Premier jus (oleomargarine tallow). 

Cream. ' 

Beef tailow and beef marrow. 

Seal blubbei . 

Seal oil. 

Mutton tallow. 

Lard and lardlike fats. 

Hog fat, hog lard. 

Skin fat of belly of hog. 

Soap grease. 

Stearin tar. 

Tallow of beef and mutton. 

Animal fat, not specially named above or 
below. 

Articles manufactured from dry milk 
(plasmon, sanatogen, and others). 

Whale fat. 

Whale blubber. 

Train oil. 

Whale bone fat. 

(d) Refuse, bristles, bones, etc. 

(Export and transit forbidden. Skins and 
hides, see Sec. XI.) 

Refuse, animal, of all kinds, in a raw state, 
and fertilizers made therefrom. 

Bristles in a raw, unelaborated, and un- 
bundled state. 



Catgut (twisted gut strings) of No. 567 of 
the customs tariff. 

Manure, animal. 

Horn meal (refuse from the elaboration of 
animal horns or horn products), not for 
the production of horn paste. 

Horn clippings (refuse clippings and shav- 
ings from the working of horn). 

Hoofs. 

Claws. 

Bone. 

Horn pith (Knochenzapfen, Hornpeddig). 
Raw , also freed from fat, for other pur- 
poses than carving. 

Bone charcoal, powdered (only export for- 
bidden). 

II. SUBSISTENCE SUPPLIES, BEDDING, AND 
FODDER. 

(Only export forbidden.) 
(a) Grain, including rice. 

Buckwheat. 

Dari (seed of Sorghum tartar icum). 

Barley. 

Oats. 

Millet. 

Indian corn. 

Malt. 

Rice. 

Rye. 

Spelt (bearded wheat). 

Wheat. 

(6) Pulse. 
Pease. 

Fodder (horse, etc.), beans. 
Lentils. 
Lupines. 
Table beans. 
Vetches. 

(c) Oleaginous fruits and seeds. 
Clubmoss seeds (lycopodium, witch meal). 1 
Cotton seed. 
Peanuts. 
Seeds of turnips, etc. (ordinary and sugar 

beets, and others). 
Grass seed (ray, timothy, canary, and 

other grasses). 
Hemp seed. 
Clover seed (red clover, lucern, serradilla 

esparcet, white clover, and others). 
Copra. 

Flaxseed meal. 
Flaxseed. 
Carrot seed. 
Palm kernels. 
Rapeseed. 
Coleseed. 
Sesame. 
Soy beans. 
Sunflower seed. 



1 Transit also forbidden. 



23057— 16- 



66 



BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 



(d) Mill products from grain (including rice) 

and pulse. 

Flakes of grain, as oats, corn, and rice. 
Peeled grain, as barley, oats. 
Grits of grain, as corn, wheat, rice. 
Groats of grain, as buckwheat, oats. 
Bran of grain, as barley, oats, millet, corn, 

rye, wheat, and rice. 
Flour of grain (buckwheat, barley, oats, 
millet, corn (dari), malt, rye, spelt, and 
wheat), also coarse rye and wheat meal. 
Flour of pulse (beans, peas, lentils). 
Flour of rice. 
Coarse ground grain, as barley, corn, rye, 

and wheat. 
Coarse ground pulse. 
Mill products, other, as: 
Buckwheat, hulled. 
Peas, shelled, etc. (pea groats, split 

peas, etc.). 
Rolled barley. 
Hulled oats. 
Shelled millet. 
Lentils (shelled). 

Rice, including broken rice, poiished. 
Rice refuse. 

(e) Groceries and substitutes, cacao products, 

tobacco and tobacco products. 



As coffee 
substi- 
tutes. 



Date seeds, roasted. 

Acorns, roasted. 

Ground nuts (earth chestnuts), 

roasted. 
Figs, roasted. 
Acorn cacao. 
Fig coffee. 
Oat cacao. 
Coffee, raw, roasted. 
Coffee substitutes not named above or 

below. 
Cacao, raw in beans; roasted. 
Cacao, roasted, shelled., ground, etc. 
Cacao paste. 
Pressed cacao cakes. 
Cacao powder. 
Cacao products. 
Grain coffee. 
Malt coffee. 

Malt, burnt, roasted, carameled. j As c °ff. ee 
Carrots, roasted. 1 tutes. 

Pepper, black and white. 
Chocolate. 

Chocolate substitutes. 
Tobacco and tobacco products: 

Tobacco leaves. 

Raw tobacco. 

Tobacco ribs and stalks. 

Tobacco lye. 

Carrots, sticks, and rolls for the produc- 
tion of snuff. 

Smoking tobacco, cut. 



Tobacco and tobacco products— Contd. 
Pipe tobacco in rolls, sheets. 
Snuff and chewing tobacco in rolls, 

sheets. 
Tobacco meal, tobacco dust. 
Paper made of stalks of ribs of tobacco 

leaves. 
Cigars. 
Cigarettes. 

Refuse from tobacco leaves and from 
tobacco products ,* also mixed with 
refuse from raw tobacco (scraps). 
Tea. 

Roots and parts of roots, roasted. \ As cof- 
Chicory (chicoryjroots), roasted. 1 fee sub- 
Sugar beets, roasted. Jstitutes. 
Chicory (chicory^oots), dried. 

(/) Potatoes, culinary'plants (except garlic 
and horseradish), fresh, dried, cooked, or 
otherwise preserved; sugar beets. 

Artichokes. 

Bamias (Bamien). 

Sweet potatoes. 

Artemisia. 

Kale. 

Cauliflower. 

Beans. 

Borage. 

Savoy. 

Borecole. 

Broccoli. 

Brussels chicory. 

Butterkohl. 

Mushrooms. 

Dill. 

Tarragon. 

Eggplant. 

Endive. 

Peas. 

Tarragon. 

Prickly lettuce. 

Green cabbage. 

Cucumbers. 

Dill. 

Viper grass. 

Hop sprigs. 

Hyssop. 

Tarragon. 

Headed cabbage. 

Carrots. 

Potatoes. 

Potato flakes. 

Potato flour. 

Sliced potatoes. 

Potato chips. 

Carvol. 

Kohlrabi. 

Turnip-rooted cabbage (as human food). 

Herbs for food. 

Herb tea for drinking (Paraguay tea, etc.). 



GERMAN SUBSISTENCE SUPPLIES. 



67 



Squash. 

Leek. 

Laurel leaves. 

Corn cobs. 

Marjoram. 

Cassava roots. 

Manioca roots. 

Mate leaves. 

Sea cabbage. 

Eggplant. 

Melons. 

Morels. 

Parsley. 

Chanterelles. 

Mushrooms, edible, not named above or 

below. 
Leek. 
Purslane. 
Radishes. 
Corn salad. 
Winter radishes. 
Rhubarb. 
Brussels sprouts. 
Red (purple) cabbage. 
Carrots, beets, Teltow turnips, and similar 

root vegetables for human consumption. 
Lettuce. 
Beets. 
Sage. 

Edible seeds. 
Sauerkraut. 
Savoy. 

Edible mushrooms. 
Viper grass (scorzonera). 
Celery (tuberous celery, stalk or blanched 

celery). 
Asparagus. 
Broccoli. 
Spinage. 
Brussels sprouts. 
Woodruff. 
Teltow turnips. 
Thyme. 
Tomatoes. 
Truffles. 
White cabbage. 
Savoy. 
Witloof. 
Sugar beets. 
Onions for eating purposes. 

(g) Fruit and berries, fresh, dried, cooked, or 

oth erwise preser ved.* 
Apples. 
Apricots. 
Pears. 

Strawberries. 
Elderberries. 
Black currants. 
Hipberries. 

1 Exceptjnuts, candied fruits, 

2 Transit also' forbidden. 



Whortleberries. 
Raspberries. 
Elderberries. 
Currants. 
Cherries. 
Red bilberries. 
Mirabelles. 

Unfermented fruit juice. 
Peaches. 

Plums (prunes, mirabelles, reineclaudes, 
Krickeln, bullaces, and other plums). 
Red Dilberries. 
Prunelles. 
Quinces. 
Reineclaudes. 
Juniper berries. 

Mahaleb cherries (a kind of sourcherry). 
Grapes. 
Prunes. 

(h) Vegetable fats, fatty vegetable oils, fatty 
acids. 

Dika. 

Ankara (a cocoanut butter). 

Bankul nut oil. 

Bassia oil. 

Olive oil. 

Cottonseed oil. 

Cotton stearin. 

Ben oil. 

Oil of bitter almonds (fatty). 

Bean oil (soy and other oils). 

Beechnut oil. 

Chaulmugra oil. 

Cocotine (edible grease made of cocoanut 
oil). 

Degras. 2 

Oilofcameline. 

Elipe oil. 

Peanut oil. 

Fatty acids, not specially named. 

Shea butter. 

Grana oil. 

Hemp oil. 

Wood oil. 

Illipe oil. 

Cacao butter. 

Cocoanut oil (cocoanut butter, grease, tal- 
low). 

Copra oil. 

Croton oil. 

Artificial lard (chiefly of vegetable oils). 

Squash seed oil. 

Lavat oil. 

Linseed oil. 

Laurel oil, fatty. 

Madia oil. 

Corn oil (corn germ oil). 

Margaric acid. 

Poppy oil. 

fruit pastes, and jellied fruits. 



68 



BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 



Mowra oil. 

Nutmeg butter (nutmeg balsam, fatty nut- 
meg oil). 

Niger oil. 

Nut oil. 

Oil dregs. 

Oleic acid. 

Palm butter. 

Palmin. 

Palmitin. 

Palm kernel oil. 

Peach kernel oil. 

Vegetabb fats, not specially named above 
or below. 

Piny tallow. 

Rapeseed oil. 

Rice oil. 

Castor oil. 

Mustard oil. 

Sesame oil. 

Sesame oil fatty acid. 

Shea butter. 

Soy oil. 

Sunflower seed oil. 

Stearic acid. 

Oil of black alder. 

Sulfur oil. 

Tallow, vegetable, not specially named 
above or below. 

Tea seed oil (Chinese tree oil). 

Tournante oil. 

Grape seed oil. 

Wool grease stearin. 

(i) Pastry, macaroni, etc., sugar, kindermehl, 
starch. 

Pastry of all kinds (except Nuremberg gin- 
gerbread and spice nuts). 1 

Bread. 

Dextrin sirup. 

Dextrose. 

Powdered sugar. 

Colored sugar. 

Fruit sugar. 

Fruit-sugar sirup. 

Green sugar. 

Gelatin, vegetable, and gelatin glue 
powder. 2 

Glucose. 

Candied honey. 

Strained honey. 

Dog cakes (dog biscuit). 

Invert sugar sirup. 

Cakes. 

Wafers, of flour. 

Caramel (burned sugar). 

Potato flour. 

Potato noodles. 

Potato starch. 

1 Exportation of Nuremberg gingerbread 
have a slight addition or a thin covering of 

2 Transit also forbidden. 



Kindermehl. 

Levulose (fruit sugar). 

Cornstarch. 

Cornstarch flour. 

Corn meal. 

Macaroni. 

Maltose. 

Maltose sugar. 

Maltose sugar sirup. 

Almond substitutes. 

Unleavened bread. 

Flour wafers. 

Molasses. 

Fodder prepared with molasses. 

Loaf sugar, ground. 

Sealing wafers of dough. 

Noodles. 

Wafers of flour, groats, or gluten. 

Wafers. 

Pumpernickel ( Westphalian brown bread). 

Refined (loaf) sugar. 

Rice starch. 

Rice-starch flour. 

Cane sugar. 

Beet tops. 

Beet juice. 

Beet sirup. 

Beet sugar. 

Ship biscuit. 

Rolls. 

Wafers of dough. 

Sirup. 

Starch. 

Starch products of tariff numbers 174 and 

175, for instance, gluten flour. 
Glue and finishing substances containing 

starch flour. 
Gluten, including granulated, dried, or 

changed by fermentation (albumen glue) 
Paste (size), liquid or dried. 
Manioc. 

Flour, East Indian. 
Arrowroot flour. 
Sago. 

Sago substitutes (groats of potatoes) 
Sago flour. 
Salep powder. 
Starch, roasted. 
Dextrin. 

Tapioca, tapioca flour. 
Bassorin. 
Starch flour. 
Starch sirup. 
Starch sugar. 
Alimentary paste. 
Grape sugar. 
Waffles. 

Wheat flakes, roasted. 
Sugar of all kinds. 

and spice nuts not prohibited even if they 
cacao or chocolate. 



GERMAN SUBSISTENCE SUPPLIES. 



69 



Sugar drainings (sirup, molasses). 

Browning. 

Sugar colors. 

Powdered sugar. 

Sugar molasses. 

Biscuit. 

(k) Hay and other fodders of all kinds; bed- 
ding and straw. 

(Bran and shorts. See above under d.) 

Pine needles (bedding). 

Bean fodder meal (residue from extraction 
of oil from soy beans).* 

Distiller's wash or swill. 

Peanut cakes (peanut-cake flour). 

Turnips. 

Fodder lime. 

Fodder herbs. 

Fodder beets of all kinds. 

Grain straw. 

Green fodder. 

Chopped straw. 

Hemp cakes, even ground. 

Millet shells. 

Millet chaff. 

Hay, including clover hay. 

Hay-fodder meal. 

Chaff. 

Coffee hulls. 

Coffee-hull meal as admixture to cattle 
feed. 

Cacao shells. 

Potato pulp, even in form of bran (pulp 
bran). 

Turnip-rooted cabbage as cattle feed. 

Coconut (oil) cakes. 

Coconut-cake flour. 

Copra cakes, even ground. 

Squash-seed cakes, even ground. 

Leaves (bedding). 

Flax cakes. 

Linseed meal. 

Linseed cakes, even ground. 

Corn eyes. 

Corn-eye cakes (corn-eye-cake flour). 

Corn-eye-oilcakes (corn-eye-oil-cake flour). 

Corncobs, stripped. 

Corncob flour. 

Maisolin (residue from cornstarch produc- 
tion). 

Corn-oil cakes (corn-oil-cake flour). 

Corn residue (from oil production). 

Corn -meal fodder (refuse product from corn- 
starch production). 

Malt germs. 

Malt residuum (brewer's dregs). 

Molasses "strength" fodder. 

Poppy-seed cakes. 

Carrots. 

Moss (bedding). 

Afoit'ra-seed cakes (mowra-seed-oil cakes). 

Oil cakes (oil-cake meal). 



Oleaginous-seed cakes (oleaginous-seed- 
cake meal). 

Palm-kernel cakes (palm-kernel-cake meal). 

Pulp bran. 

Rapeseed cakes. 

Rice straw. 

Distiller's wash, residual liquid from mo- 
lasses. 

Chaff from grain of all kinds. 

Bedding, not specially named above or 
below. 

Straw, not specially named above. 

Peat dust, peat litter. 

Brewer's dregs. 

Turnips. 

Sugar-beet shreds, lixiviated. 

(I) Drinks, juices of fruits and plants, yeast. 

Apple juice. 

Arrak. 

Ether alcohol (ether mixed with or dis- 
solved in alcohol). 

Beer yeast. 

Birch water. 

Brandy (including liquor, arrak, rhum, 
cognac, Kirschwasser, and Zwetschgen- 
wasser). 

Strawberry juice. 

Fennel sirup. 

Fruit juices, not specially named above or 
below. 

Fruit sirup, not specially named above or 
below. 

Jellies (vegetable). 

Yeast of all kinds. 

Whortleberry juice. 

Raspberry vinegar. 

Raspberry juice. 

Raspberry sirup. 

Hoffmann's Balm of Life. 

Hoffman's Drops. 

Ginger juice. 

Ginger sirup. 

Current juice. 

Current sirup. 

Carmelite water. 

Cherry juice. 

Cherry sirup. 

Cherry water (Kirsehivasscr). 

Krauseminz {Mentha crispa) sirup. 

Field poppy sirup. 

Cognac. 

Buckthorn-berry sirup. 

Liqueur. 

Liquor (ether alcohol, Hoffmann's Drops). 

Manna sirup. 

Marmalade. 

Mastic spirits. 

Mulberry sirup. 

Carmelite water. 

Poppy sirup 

Fruit juices. 



70 



BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 



Fruit jelly. 

Peppermint sirup. 

Peppermint spirits 

Plant juices. 

Plant sirup. 

Orange-blossom sirup. 

Orange juice. 

Orange-peel sirup. 

Rhuin. 

Juices of fruits and plants, not specially 

named above or below. 
Sweet spirits of niter. 
Muriatic ether (sweet spirit of salt). 
Marmalade. 

Sirup (fruit and plant sirup). 
Alcohol. 
Tropical fruit juices, not specially named 

above or below. 
Tresterbranntuein (weak spirit distilled 

from fermented husks of grapes). 
Violet sirup. 
Elderberry juice. 
Elderberry spirits. 
Alcohol. 
Wine lees. 
Absinthe. 
Cinnamon sirup. 
Lemon juice. 
Lemon sirup. 
Zwetschgenwasser ("prune water"). 

m. ARMS, AMMUNITION, POWDER, 
EXPLOSIVES. 

(See also Sections IV: "Mineral oils, an- 
thracite coal tar, tar oils, organic prod- 
ucts for the manufacture of explosives 
and coal tar dyes, etc."; VII: "Electro- 
technical productions and necessaries;'' 
and IX: "Ores, coal, base metals and 
products therefrom.") 

(a) Arms. 

1. Small arms and parts thereof: 
Bayonets. 
Daggers. 
Dagger blades. 
Dirks. 
Guns. 
Parts of guns, as— 

Trigger guards. 

Springs. 

Hammers. 

Barrels. 

Stocks. 

Locks. 

Closing mechanism. 

Breech closures. 

Carbines. 

Lances. 

Pistols, including light pistols. 

Rapiers, rapier blades. 

Revolvers. 



1. Small arms and parts thereof— Contd. 

Parts of guns, as— Continued. 
Sabers. 
Saber blades. 

2. Other weapons, and parts thereof. 

Ordnance (cannon, howitzers, mortars, 

etc.). 
Parts of ordnance, as: 

Barrels. 

Carriages. 
Machine guns. 
Machine-gun parts. 
Mines. 

Torpedo frames. 
Torpedo batteries. 
Torpedo launching tubes. 
Torpedoes. 
Torpedo parts, other. 
Sighting devices. 

(6) Ammunition. 
Bombs. 
Projectiles. 
Shell. 
Case shot. 

Cartridges (artillery). 

Cartridges, small-arm, including illumi- 
nating cartridges. 
Shrapnel. 

(c) Powder and explosives. 

Ammonite. 

Astralite. 

Ballistite. 

Bellite. 

Cheddite. 

Cordite. 

Cresylite. 

Dahmenite. 

Donarite. 

Dualin. 

Dynamite. 

Dynamite glycerin. 

E eras it e. 

Filite. 

Fordite. 

Gelatin dynamite. 

Gelatin glycerin. 

Glycerin gelatin mixtures. 

Carbonite. 

Coronite. 

Lyddite. 

Meganite. 

Melinite. 

Mobelite. 

Permonite. 

Petroclastite. 

Picrate (of ammonia, potassium, sodium). 

Picrate powder. 

Plastomenite. 

Progressite. 

Powder. 



GERMAN OILS. 



71 



Rhexite. 

Roburite. 

Securite. 

Explosive gelatin. 

Trinitrocresol. 

Vigorite. 

Westphalite. 

(d) Articles serving in the manufacture of 
arms, ammunition, powder, and explo- 
sives, and other munitions of war. 

Acetone. 

Acetyl cellulose. 

Antimony. 

Ethyl ether. 

Clubmoss seeds (Lycopodium, witch 
meal). 

Nitrated cotton. 

C^ntralite (I and II; I=diethyldiphenyl- 
carbamide; 11= dimethyldiphenylcarba- 
mide). 

Chlorates of barium, calcium, potassium, 
sodium, strontium. 

Dinitrotoluol. 

Wire shears. 

Acetic ether. 

Pine resin. 

Caltrops. 

Gelatins, vegetable. 

Gelatin glue powder. 

Projectile primers. 

Cannon primers. 

Glycerin. 

Graphite. 1 

Charcoal. 

Metallic cases for artillery and small-arm 
cartridges. 

Lime, acetate of. 

Camphor, including artificial— that is, that 
produced synthetically. 

Chlorate of potassium. 

Fulminate of silver. 

Bone charcoal, powdered (export only for- 
bidden). 

Collodium wool. 

Colophony. 2 

Balls and bullets for firearms. 

Illuminating torches. 

Brass plates for cartridge shells (artillery 
and small-arm). 

Oxalate of sodium. 

Nitrogelatine. 

Nitroglycerin. 

Nitrolignose. 

Nitrotoluol. 

Nitrocellulose. 

Pe<M<7roftr( "pith cane") over 3 mm. thick. 

Perchlorates: Of barium, potassium so- 
dium. 

1 The export and transit carriage of retort graphite is permitted, and the export and 
transit carriage of graphite crucibles and of refuse from graphite crucibles is prohibited. 

2 Except violin resin in formed pieces (colophony for violins, vioKncellos, and bass 
viols). 



Tampions. 

Phosphorus. 

Picric acid. 

Pyroxylin (nitrated cotton). 

Mercury. 

Rockets (illuminating, signal, exploding). 

Nitrates, as: Nitrate of ammonia, of ba- 
rium, of potassium, of copper, of soda. 

Nitric acid. 

Gunstocks, crude, partially or wholly fin- 
ished. 

Guncotton. 

Shot for firearms. 

Sulfur. 

Sulfuric acid. 

Nitroglycerine. 

Explosive primers. 

Steel bodies for projectiles, crude, and pre- 
liminarily bored. 

Turpentine oil. 

Toluol. 

Trinitrobenzol. 

Trinitrotoluol. 

Celloidin (nitrocellulose). 

Cellulose, nitrated. 

Primers of all kinds (percussion caps, time 
fuses, double primers, etc.). 

Forsyth's primers. 

Fuses. 

Fulminating primers. 

IV. MINERAL OILS, ANTHRACITE COAL TAR, 
TAR OILS, ORGANIC PRODUCTS FOR THE 
MANUFACTURE OF EXPLOSIVES AND COAL- 
TAR DYES, DYES AND PIGMENTS, WOUND- 
DRESSING APPLIANCES AND MEDICINES, 
FERTILIZERS, AND OTHER CHEMICAL 
PRODUCTS. 

(See also Sections III c and d: "Powders 
and explosives as well as articles serving 
in the manufacture of these goods.") 

(a) Mineral oils, crude and refined. 

Benzine, crude and refined. 

Asphalt, natural, liquid. 

Brown coal-tar oils. 

Fuel petroleum. 

Cylinder oil. 

Petroleum, crude and refined. 

Mineral tar, natural, liquid. 

Gas oils. 

Gasoline. 

Tar. 

Kerosene (fuel petroleum). 

Illuminating oil (fuel petroleum). 

Ligroin. 

Lubricating oil. 

Masut. 



72 



BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 



Mineral oils, not named specially above or 

below. 
Mineral lubricating oils. 
Naphtha. 
Paraffin oils. 

Petroleum, crude or refined. 
Petroleum asphalt. 
Petroleum ether. 
Petroleum pitch. 
Petroleum spirit. 
Petrol coke. 
Cleaning oil. 
Crude benzine. 
Crude naphtha. 
Residue from the distillation of mineral 

oils. 
Heavy benzine. 
Solar oils. 
Motor oils. 
Vaseline oil. 
Paraffin oil . 

(6) Anthracite coal tar, anthracite coal-tar 
oils, including the oily distillates from an- 
thracite coal-tar oils. 

Anthracene oil. 

Asphalt naphtha. 

Benzol (anthracite coal benzine). 

Cumol. 

Hydrocarbon (hydrocarbid). 

Carbolineum. 

Car bo 1 oil 

Creosote oil. 

Solvent benzol (solvent naphtha). 

Naphtha (thinly liquid product of distilla- 
tion of anthracite coal tar). 

Naphthaline oil. 

Heavy benzol. 

Anthracite coal tar (coke oven tar and gas 
works tar, both including thick tar and 
tar thickenings). 

Anthracite coal-tar oils, light and heavy, 
not specially named above or below. 

Toluol (methylbenzol). 

Xylol (dimethylbenzol). 

(c) Organic products utilizable in the pro- 
duction of explosives and coal-tar dyes 
(except benzoic acid and its salts). 

Acetanilid (antifebrin). 
Acetessigester. 
Aldehyde. 

Alpha. (See under the next following syl- 
lable, as: Alphanaphthol and alphanaph- 
thylamin; see Naphthol and Xaphthy- 
lamin.) 
Amido (Amino) compounds, as: 
Amidoacetanilid. 

Amidoazobenzol, amidoazotouol, ami- 
doazoxylol (together with their sul- 
phates). 



Amidobenzaldehyd. 

Amido benzol, naphthaline, naphthols, 
toluols, xylols (together with their sul- 
phates and carbonates, as: Bamma acid, 
H acid, J acid, S acid, SS acid). 

Amidobromic and amidochloric com- 
pounds. 

Amidocresols. 

Amidonitro compounds. 

Amidophenols. 

Amidosalicylic acids. 

Amylchinoliniodid. 

Anilin, anilin oil, anilin compounds. 

Anisidins. 

Anthrachinon, anthrachinon compounds 
(nitro , amido , chloranthra chinons ; nitro , 
chlor, nitroamido, amidochlor anthra- 
chinons; their sulfo and carbon acids). 

Anthranilic acid. 

Anthranilic acid methylether. 

Anthranilic salts. 

Anthracene. 

Ethyl compounds, as: 

Ethyl acetate (acetic ether). 
Ethyl anilin, toluidins. 
Ethylamidophenol. 
Ethylbenzyl anilin, toluidins. 

Azobenzol and other azo compounds. 

Azoxystilbenedisulfo acids and other azoxy 
compounds. 

Benzaldehyde. 

Benzidam (anilin). 

Benzidin and benzidin compounds. 

Benzol and benzol compounds (amido, 
nitro, chlorbenzols; nitrochlor, nitroami- 
do, amidochlorbenzols; their sulfo and 
carbon acids). 

Benzo compounds, as: Benzophenon. 

Benzoyl compounds, as: Benzoyl chlorid. 

Benzyl compounds, as benzylanylin, ben- 
zylchlorid, benzyltoluidin. 

Beta. (See under the next following sylla- 
ble, as: Betanaphthol. See Naphthol.) 

Bi. (See under the next following syllable, 
as: Binitrobenzol, binitrochlorbenzol, 
binitotoluol. See Nitro compounds.) 

Oil of bitter almonds, artificial, containing 
chlorin. 

Brombenzol. 

Chinolin. 

Chloramido (chloramino) compounds. 

Chloranilins. 

Chlor anisidin. 

Chlorethyl and chlorethyl compounds. 

Chlorbenzaldehyde. 

Chlorbenzols and chlorbenzol compounds. 

Chlorbenzyl and chlorbenzyl compounds. 

Chloracetic acids. 

Chlorhydrins. 

Chlorcarbonoxyd (phosgen). 

Chlormethyl and chlormethyl compounds. 

Chlornitro compounds. 



GERMAN CHEMICALS. 



73 



Calortoluol and chlortoluol compounds 
(sulfo and carbon acids). 

Chloroxylol and chloroxylol compound 
(sulfo and carbon acids). 

Cleve acid. 

Cumidins and cumidin compounds. 

Delta acid. 

Di. (See under the next following syllable, 
as:) 
Dianisidin. (See Anisidin.) 
Diethylanilin, diethylamidophenol, 
diethyltoluidin. (-See Ethyl com- 
pounds. 
Dinitrobenzol, dinitrochlorbenzol, 
dinitrotoluol. (See Nitro com- 
pounds.) 
Diphenylamin. (See Phenylamin.) 

Diazo compounds. 

Dioxybenzol (pyrocatechin, hydrochinin, 
resorcin) and other dioxy compounds. 

Acetic ether. 

Acetic acid (glacial acetic acid). 

Acetic acid anhydrid. 

Formaldehyd. 

Freund's acid. 

Gallic acid. 

Hydrols and their substitution products, 
as: Tetramethyl, tetraethyl, diamido- 
benzhydrol. 

Hydroxylamin. 

Isatin. 

Camphor substitute. 

Carbolic acid and its derivatives. (See 
Phenol.) 

Carbonyl chlorid. 

Ketons and their substitution products, as: 
Tetramethyl, tetraethyldiamidodiph- 
enylketon. 

Carbon oxychlorid. 

Cresols. 

Cresotin acids. 

Vat powder. 

Cyanol(anilin). 

Lucidol. 

Meta. (See under the next following sylla- 
ble, as: Metacresotin acid and metani- 
tranilin; see Cresotin acids and Nitrani- 
lin.) 

Metanilin acid. 

Methyl compounds, as: Methylamidophe- 
nol, methyl, methylethyl, methylbenzyl, 
anilins, and toluidins. 

Mirbane essence (Nitrobenzol). 

Mono. (See under the next following syl- 
lable, as: Monochloracetic acid, monome- 
thylanilin; see Chloracetic acids and 
Methyl compounds.) 

Naphthalidin (naphthylamin). 

Naphthalin and Naphthalin compounds 
(nitro, amido chlor naphthalins; nitro, 
chlor nitroamido, amido; chlor naphtha- 
lins; their sulfo and carbon acids). 



Naphthion acids, naphthion salts (naph- 
thionates), as: Naphthionate of sodium, 
naphthionic acid compounds. 

Naphthols and naphthol compounds 
(nitro , amido ,chlornaphthols ; nitrochlor , 
nitro, amido, amidochlor, naphthols; 
their sulfo acids, as Neville-Winther acid, 
crocein acid (Bayer's acid), Schaffer's 
acid, F acid, chromotrop acid, and car- 
bon acids). 

Naphthyl compounds, as naphthylamins, 
naphthylaminsulfo acids. 

Naphthylen compounds, as Naphthylen- 
diamins. 

Nitramon. 

Nitranilin and nitranilin compounds. 

Nitro compounds, as: Nitro, nitro amido, 
nitrochlor anthrachinons, naphthalins, 
naphthols, toluols, xylols; their sulfo and 
carbon acids; nitroanilins, nitrobenzal- 
dehyde, nitrobenzol (mirbane essence), 
nitrochlor benzol, nitrosalicylic acid. 

Nitroso compounds. 

Ortho. (See under the next following syl- 
lable, as: Orthocresotinic acid; see Creso- 
tinic acids.) 

Oxamin developer. 

O xy benzoic acid and other oxy compounds . 

Para. (See under the next following sylla- 
ble, as: Paranitranilin; see Nitranilin.) 

Phenanthren. 

Phenetidin and Phenetidin compounds. 

Phenol (benzophenol, carbolic acid, phe- 
nyl- alcohol, phenylic acid, oxybenzol, 
anthracite coal-tar creosote) and its de- 
rivatives, as: Amido (amino) phenols, 
bromphenol, chlorphenol, diamidoresor- 
cin, dioxybenzols (pyrocatechin), hydro- 
chinon, resorcin), nitrophenols (trinitro- 
phenol) [picric acid], nitrosophenol (chi- 
nonoxim), phenolsulfo acids. 

Phenyl and phenylen compounds, as: 
Phenylamin (anilin), phenylendiamins, 
phenylendiamindisulfo acid. 

Phosgen (chlorcarbonoxyd). 

Pht halic acid and pht halic acid compounds 

Propiolic acid. 

Propionic acid. 

Pyrogallolandpyrogallol compounds. 

Salicylic acid and salicylic acid compounds. 

Sulfanilic acid and sulfanilic acid com- 
pounds. 

Tetra, see under next following syllable, as: 
Tetrachlorbenzol, see Chlorbenzol. 

Thiosalicylic acid. 

Thiotoluidin compounds. 

Tolidin and tolidin compoimds. 

Toluidins and toluidin compounds. 

Toluoland toluolcompounds (nitro, amido, 
chlor, coluols; nitrochlor, nitroamido, 
amidochlor toluols; their sulfo and car- 
bon acids). 



74 



BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 



Toluylendia miiis and toluylen compounds. 

Tolyl compounds. 

Tri, see under the next following syllable, 

as: Trichloracetic acid, trinitrotoluol, see 

Chloracetic acid and Nitro compounds. 
Xylidin. (£ee Xylidin compounds.) 
Xylol and xylol compounds (nitro, amido> 

chlor xylols; nitrochlor nitroamido, 

amidochlor xylols; their sulfo and carbon 

acids). 
Cinnamic acid. 

(d) Paints and dyes, 1 not prepared, not in 
packages for retail. 2 

1. Organic dyes. 

a. Natural dyes (vegetable and animal 
dyes). 

Alkanna extract. 

Berber is extract. 

Berberin. 

Chlorophyll. 

Campeachy wood extracts. 

Balls of woad. 

Brasilien. 

Nettles for production of chlorophyll. 

Lac dye. 

Litmus dyes. 

Yellow wood extracts. 

Dyer's weed extracts. 

Hematetn. 

Hematoxylin. 

Indigo, natural. 

Indigo extract. 

Carmine red, carminette. 

Cheese colors (casein colors) of vegetable 

dyes. 
Madder extract. 
Madder paints and dyes (madder bloom, 

madder carmine, garanceux, garancin, 

colorin). 
Curcumin. 
Maclurin. 
Morin. 
Annatto. 

Quercitron extract. 
Quercitin. 
Red dyewood extracts. 

1 We have refrained from mentioning all names, since they show that dyes and paints 
are meant, thus: Brilliant blue, brilliant green, genuine blue, genuine red, naphthalin 
yellow, neutral blue, victoria blue, victoria green. 

2 Forbidden on the contrary are the exportation and transit carriage of white lead, 
zinc white, lithopone white, iron oxyd, iron minium, rubbed on with oil or oil varnish; 
of paper printing color of lamp black, or copper printing ink produced with linseed 
oil or oil varnish, not in packages for retail, and of graphite (except retort graphite), 
formed or in packages for retail. 

3 Exportation of overglaze color made of iron, chromic, and cobalt oxid for mixing 
with colorless glaze or enamel, as well as enamel paste and clay paste, not forbidden. 



Safflower extract. 

Safflower carmine. 

Safllower yellow. 

Safflower red. 

Saffron extract. 

Sandalwood extracts. 

Cochineal, wild, tame. 

Cochineal, ungenuine (animal kermes, 

kermes grains, alkermes). 
Cochineal carmine. 
Indian yellow (purree). 
Sepia. 
Vegetable and animal dyes, not specially 

named above. 

b. Artificial dyes.i 

Anilin dyes. 

Anthracene (alizarin) dyes. 

Azo dyes. 

Chinolin dyes. 

Gallic acid dyes, as: Gallein, gallocyanin, 

gallamin blue. 
Indigo dyes. 
Nitro dyes. 
Suliur dyes. 
Other artificial and tar dyes not specially 

named. 

2. Mineral colors. 

a. Mineral colors which are natural or pre- 
pared from the refuse of industries. 

Earth colors (burned, ground, washed, or 
further prepared color earths [except 
chalk, including the so-called Neuburg 
chalk], ores), as: Iron oxid 3 (even iron 
oxid hydrate), natural or artificial (also 
yellow ocher, even ground with oil or 
oil varnish). 

Manganese ore, zinc ores (calamine, zinc- 
blende), cobalt ores (zaffre), and other 
ores. 

Bolus (Cyprian, Lemnian, Maltese, Strie- 
gau, Sienna, and sealed earth). 

Umber (Cologne, Cyprian, Sicilian). 

Veronese earth (Veronese green, green 
earth). 

Yellow earth (yellow Sienna earth). 



GERMAN DYES AND COLORS. 



75 



Asphalt brown. 

Cassel earth. 

Oil black (fine powdered black chalk). 

Mineral black (fine powdered black chalk). 

Grudeschwarz ("ember" black). 

Charcoal black. 

Coke black. 

Graphite (powdered black lead, bismuth 

black lead, plumbago, stove polish), 

formed (in tablets, blocks, or the like) or 

in packages for retail. 1 
Refuse and by-products of industry, utiliz- 

able as earth colors. 

b. Artificial mineral colors (pigments). 

Antimony colors: 

Algarot (antimony oxychlorid). 

Antimonial cinnibar (antimony oxy- 
sulfid). 

"White lead substitute (oxid of anti- 
mony). 

Naples yellow (antimonial yellow 
antimonate of lead). 
Arsenic color: Orpiment. 
Barium (baryta) colors: 

Baryta yellow (yellow ultramarine, 
neutral chromate of barium). 

Baryta green (mixture of Paris blue, 
chrome yellow, and heavy spar or 
permanent white). 

Baryta white (permanent white, arti- 
ficial sulfate of baryta, barium sul- 
fate), even with white lead (Genoa, 
Hamburg, Dutch, Venetian white). 
Lead colors: 

Chromate of lead (chrome yellow). 

Litharge (yellow oxid of lead), yellow 
(silver litharge) and red (gold 
litharge), powdered (yellow lead, 
massicot, sandix). 

Red lead (minium, red oxid of lead). 

"White lead (basic carbonate oi lead), 
even ground with oil or oil varnish. 

Cassel yellow (oxychlorid of lead). 

Naples yellow (basic antimonate of 
lead). 

Patent yellow (Turner's yellow, oxy- 
chlorid of lead). 
Calcium colors: 

Lime chrome yellow, Gelbin. 

Satin white. 
Chrome colors: 2 

Baryta yellow (yellow ultramarine, 
neutral chromate of barium). 

Chrome blue (chrome silicium phos- 
phate). 

Chrome yellow (chromate of lead). 

i See also Section XV. Exportation and transit carriage of retort graphite permitted. 
2 Exportation of overglaze color made of iron, chromic, and cobalt oxid for mixing 
colorless glaze or enamel, as well as enamel paste and clay paste, not forbidden. 



Chrome colors — Continued. 

Chrome orange. 

Chrome red (chromic cinnabar, Ameri- 
can vermilion chromate of lead). 

Emerald green. 

Zinc yellow (zinc chrome yellow, 
chromate of zinc). 

Zinc green (mixture of zinc yellow and 
Paris blue). 
Iron colors (see preceding note): 

Berlin blue (ferrocyanide of iron, 
Prussian blue, Paris blue). 

Iron brown. 

Caput mortuum (colcothar, English 
red, Berlin red, iron minium), even 
ground with oil or oil varnish. 

Siderin yellow (chromate of iron). 

TurnbulPs blue. 
Cadmium colors: Cadmium yellow (cad- 
mium sulfid). 
Cobalt colors (see preceding note): 

Stone or cobalt blue, powder blue 
cobalt glass, china blue, smalt. 

Cobalt blue (Thenard's blue, Vienna 
blue, Leyden's blue, cobalt ultra- 
marine). 

Ceruleum. 

Cobalt yellow (Indian yellow, cobalt 
potassium nitrite). 

Cobalt green (Rinmann's green, cobalt 
tin oxid). 

Cobalt rose (cobalt red, arseniate or 
phosphate of cobalt). 
Copper colors: 

Schweiniurt green (emperor, meadow, 
English, patent, parrot green, copper 
acetate arsenite). 

Mountain blue (copper, mineral, Ham- 
burg blue, copper carbonate). 

Mountain green (Brunswick green). 

Blue verditer (green verditer). 

Casselmann's green (basic copper sul- 
fate). 

Blue verditer, blue ashes. 

Saxon blue, smalt. 

Scheel's green (mineral green, Swedish 
green, copper arsenite). 

Gentele's green (tin green, copper 
stannate). 
Manganese colors: 

Manganese white (carbonate of man- 
ganese). 

Manganese violet (Nuremberg violet, 
phosphate of manganese). 

Manganese brown. 
Molybdene color: Molybdene blue (mineral 
blue, blue carmine). 



76 



BELLIGERENT EMBARCM IS, 



Mercury colors: Red sulfld of mercury 
(red cinnabar, patent re J, Chinese red, 
vermilion). 
Strontium colors: Strontian yellow (chro- 

mate of strontium). 
Tungsten (wolfram) colors: Mineral yellow 
(tungstic or wolframic acid), wolfram 
blue (mineral blue, blue carmine). 
Zinc colors: 

Zinc ash (zinc oxid). 

Zinc yellow (zinc chrome yellow, 

chromate of zinc). 
Zinc gray (gray zinc oxid). 
Zinc green (mixture of zinc yellow an 1 

Paris blue). 
Zinc dust (poussiere). 
Zinc sulfld white ijithopone, lithopone 
white, zincolith, even ground with 
oil or oil varnish). 
Zinc white (white zinc oxid, zinc 
bloom, even ground with oil or oil 
varnish). 
Tin colors: Mosaic gold (tin disulfid). 

c. Special mineral colors. 

Bronze or metal colors, as: 

Dutch metal, brass foil, gold tinsel. 
Silver tinsel. 
Mosaic silver. 
Tile ore. 
Bronze powder. 

Argentum musivum (tin-bismuth 
amalgam). 
Ultramarine. 

Lampblack (shining soot, soot black, gas 
Dlack, finest lampblack, lacker black, 
acetylene soot, petroleum black, lamp- 
black barrels). 
Printer's ink. 

Plate black (Frankfort black). 
Bone (ivory; black. 
Druse black. 
Printing inks: 

Paper-printing ink, made of lampblack 
or plate black with linseed oil or oil 
varnish, not in packages for retail. 
Others. 
Asbestos paints (asbestos paste with color 
added). 

d. Lakes, graduated mineral colors. 

Lakes from natural organic dyestufls, as: 
Turkey berry lake, yellow wood lake, 
carmine lake (coloring lake made of 
cochineal). 
Madder lake. 
French purple. 
Lakes made of coal-tar dyes (for instance, 

of indigo and indigo carmine). 
Graduated mineral colors, as: Lime red 
krot), fashionable red (Jlfoderot) 
(baryta colored with coal-tar dyes). 



(. "Wound dressing materials and medi- 
cines. 

Acetaoilid (antifebrin). 

Acidum acctylosalieylicum (acetylosalicylic 

aci 1, aspirin). 
Actol. 
Albargin. 
Aloes. 

Aluminum na phtoldiml fonicum (alumnol). 
Alvpin. 

Arecolin, even bromohydrate of. 
Argentamin. 
Argentum (silver). 

citricum (citrate of silver). 

colloidale (colloidal silver). 

gdatosum. 

lacticum (lactate of silver). 

natrio-cascinicum (casein silver). 

nitricum (nitrate of silver). 

nuchinicum (nucleinate of silver). 

protalbinicum (protalbinate of silver). 

proteinicum (protein silver, protargol). 

sulfo-ichthyoiicum (ichthyolsulfate of 
silver). 
Argonin (casein silver). 
Argyrol. 

Ether (ethylether). also ether pro narcosi. 
Ethylendiamin silver phosphate solution. 
Atropin. its salts and compounds. 
Bromin, bromhydric acid, salts of bromic 
acid, salts of bromhydric acid, organic 
bromin compounds. 
Cascara sigrada and its compounds. 
Cinchona bark. 

Quinine, quinine sabs, and quinine com- 
pounds. 
Chloralhydrate. 
Chlorethyl and chlornaethyl in tubes and 

phials. 
Chloroform, even chlorofor pro narcosi. 
Coca leaves. 
Colchicin. 
Collargol. 
Diethylbarbituric acid and its salts (for 

instance, medinal). 
Digitalis leaves and their preparations, 

such as digitalen, etc. 
Duboisin, its salts and compounds. 
Eucain. 

Folliculi Scnnac. 

Formaldehyde solutions, paraformalde- 
hyde. 
Nutgalls. 
Gliadin silver. 
Gutta-percha paper. 
Hegonon. 
Hexamethylentetramin (urotropin, for- 

min, aminoform, etc.). 
Lunar caustic. 
Ichthargan. 

I :>e?acuanha root, even^that free from 
emitin. 



GERMAN MEDICINES. 



77 



ltrol. 

Iodin, raw iodic, hydriodie acid, salts of 

hydriodie acid organic ikdin compounds. 
Carbolic acid. 
India rubber (gum, except gum arabic, 

acajou, cherry gum, gum tragacanth, 

Kuteera and Bassora gums). 
Coedin (even phosphate and hydrochlorate 

of). 
Caffein, its salts, compounds, and prepara- 
tions. 
Cresol, cresol soap solutions, lysol. 
Lirgin {protalbin silver). 
Luminal. 
Mastic 1 and mastic preparations, such as 

mastisol. 
Morphine, morphine salts and compounds, 

as dionin, heroin. 
Narcotic mixtures (Schleich's and others). 
Novargan. 

Novocain, its compounds and prepara- 
tions. 
Opium and opium preparations, such as 

opium powder, opium tinctures, opium 

extract, pantopon. 
Paraffin. 
Pastes and salves of vegetable, animal, 

and mineral oils. 
Peruvian balsam, even artificial (perugen). 
Phenacetin. 
Proponal. 
Protalbin silver. 
Pyrazolonum dimcthylamino-phenyldi- 

methylicum (pyramidon). 
Pyrazolonum phenyldimethylicum (anti- 

pyrin). 
Pyrazolonum phenyldimethylicum salicyl- 

icum (salipyrin). 
Mercury and mercurial salts, even in 

preparations, as salves, sublimate tab- 
lets. 
Rhubarb and its preparations. 
Rhizorna Hydrastis canadensis and its 

preparations. 
Castor oil. 

Salves. See Pastes and Mercury. 
Salicylic acid and its salts. 
Salvarsan, neosalvarsan. 
Schleich's solutions and Schleich's tablets 

for their preparation. 
Scopolamin (hyoscin) and its salts. 
Semen Colchici (meadow saffron seed) and 

its preparations. 
Senega root. 

Senna leaves ( Folia Sennae). 
Silver albumose. 
Silver albumen. 



Silver compounds, organic and inorganic, 
as well as their preparations offered for 
healing purposes and not specially men- 
tioned here. 

Simaruba bark. 

Sophol. 

Styrax, raw or purified. 

Suprarenin. adrenalin, paranephrin, epi- 
nephrin, epirenan, and their compounds 
and preparations. 

Thallinum sulfuricum and other salts of 
Thallin. 

Theobromin, its salts, compounds, and 
preparations. 

Tropacocain, its compounds and prepara- 
tions. 

Vaseline. 

Veronal, Veronal sodium. 

Tartaric acid. 

Bismuth and bismuth compounds. 

"Wool grease, lanolin. 

Zincum: 
aceticum. 
permanganicum. 
sulfocarbolicum . 
sulfuricum. 

Citric acid. 

Bandage wadding, bandage gauze, and 
other bandaging appliances. 

Surgical and other medical instruments 
and apparatus; recognizable parts of 
fever thermometers. 2 

Bacteriological apparatus. 

Material for bacteriological culture media, 
such as agaragar, litmus dye. 

Prophylactic vaccina and immunizing 
sera, such as prophylactic sera, thera- 
peutic sera, and diagnostic sera. 

Experimental animals. 

f. Fertilizers. 

Ammonia, sulfate of. 

Ammonia superphosphate. 

Chilean saltpeter (nitrate of sodium). 

Guano, artificial (fish, meat, blood guano, 

etc.). 
Guano, natural. 

Guano of all kinds, treated with acids. 
Potassium salts: 

Carnallite. 

Kainite. 

Sylvinite. 

Hard salt. 

Potassium raw salts. 

Potassium fertilizer salts, including 
potassium fertilizer. 

Chlorid of potassium. 



1 Except asphalt mastic (asphalt cement). 

* Except instruments and apparatus exclusively intended for use in obstetrics and 
dentistry. 



78 



BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 



Potassium salts— Continued. 
Sulfate of potassium. 
Sulfate of potassium magnesia. 

Nitrate of calcium. 

Bone meal, also broken and coarse ground 
bone. 

Bone meal treated with acids. 

Superphosphates (raw phosphate, guano, 
bone meal, treated with acids), even 
mixed with other substances, as: Am- 
monia superphosphate. 

Thomas slag, even ground (Thomas slag 
meal, Thomas phosphate meai). 

g. Other chemical products. 

Outings from incandescent-light mantles. 

Alums, as: Chrome, iron, copper, alum; 
allumina alums (ammonia, potassium, 
sodium alum); so-called concentrated 
alum. 

Formic acid. 

Formic acid salts (formiates), as: Am- 
monia formiate, sodium formiate, al- 
lumina formiate. 

Ammonia, anhydrous, condensed (liqui- 
fied) of No. 379 of the tariff. 

Ammoniacal liquor (gas water), even con- 
densed of No. 271 of the tariff. 

Argon of No. 379b of the statistical goods 
list. 

Barium compounds: 

Barium (baryta) colors. (See herein- 
before under d. 2 b.) 
Barium chlorid and otber baryta salts. 
Barium oxid, barium superoxid, and 
other barium compounds. 

Bauxite, purified (unpurified, see Section 
XV). 

Sugar of lead (acetate and pyrolignite of 
lead), lead vinegar. 

Boric acid and borax (borate of sodium), 
of No. 275 of the tariff. 

Calcium carbid. 

Centralite I and II (L=diethyldiphenyl- 
carbamid, IL=dimethyldiphenylcarba- 
mid). 

Cerium (cerium metal). 

Cerium nitrate. 

Cerium oxid sulfate (cerisulfate). 

Cerium oxidul sulfate (cerosulfate). 

Cerium salt solution (impregnating fluid)* 

Chlorin, condensed (liquified) in bottles 
and tank wagons, of No. 379b of the sta- 
tistical goods list. 

Magnesium chlorid. 

Sulfur chlorid. 

Potassium cyanid. 

Sodium cyanid. 



Acetates, as: Barium acetate, acetate and 
pyrolignite of lead (lead sugar), acetate 
of potassium, acetate and pyrolignite of 
lime, acetates of vegetable alkaloids, 
acetate of copper (verdigris), acetate of 
sodium, acetate of allumina, acetate of 
tin. 

Gaultheria (wintergreen) oil, artificial 
(salicylic acid) meihylether. 

Ashes of incandescent-light mantles. 

Golden sulphid (pentasulfid of antimony). 

Tempering powder. 

Colophonic acid salts (resinates), as: 
Resinate of lead, resinate of lead man- 
ganese, resinate of copper, resinate of 
magnesium, resinate of manganese. 

Wood alcohol (methyl alcohol), refined. 

Potassium bichromate. 

Potassium chromate. 

Potassium hydroxid (caustic potash), 
solid and liquid (caustic lye). 

Potassium manganate. 

Potassium permanganate. 

Potassium salts not elsewhere mentioned, 
and products therefrom. 

Citrate of lime. 

Cobalt oxid. 

Collodium liquid (liquid in which to dip 
incandescent-light mantles). 

Sulfate of copper. 

Solution of thorium and cerium salts (im- 
pregnating fluid) of No. 317s of the sta- 
tistical goods list. 

Magnesia, carbonate, artificial. 

Malonic acid and its compounds (malonic 
acid ether, diethyl malonic acid ether, 
etc.). 

Lactic acid. 

Sodium bichromate, sodium bicarbonate, 
sodium chromate. 

Sodium carbonate. (See Soda.) 

Nickel oxid. 

Sulfate of nickel. 

Oleates, linoleates, as: Linoleate of lead, 
linoleate of lead manganese, oleate of 
magnesia, manganoxydul (oleate of 
manganese). 

Oxalic acid. 

Phosphorus.- 

Phosphate of lime. 

Phosphorus sulfids. 

Potash (potassium carbonate, also potas- 
sium bicarbonate). 

Pyridin bases. 

Chlorid of ammonia. 

Liquid ammonia, spirit of ammonia, 
spirit of hartshorn. 

Nitric acid. 



GERMAN VEHICLES. 



79 



Nitro-muriatic acid. 

Nitrates: Of ammonia, of barium, of lead, 
of calcium, of cerium, of potassium, of 
sodium, of thorium, of allumina. 

Nitrites: Of ammonia, of potassium, of 
sodium. 

Hydrochloric acid. 

Sulfur. 

Bisulfid of carbon. 

Sulfid of sodium. 

Sulfuric acid. 

Sulfuric acid anhydrid (sulfur trioxid). 

Sulfates: Of ammonia, of anilin, of barium, 
of cerium (cerisulfate, cerosulfate), of 
iron (sulfate and protosulfate), of potas- 
sium, of copper, of magnesium, of sodium 
(glauber salts), of vegetable alkaloids, of 
thorium, of allumina, of zinc. 

Sulfurous acid. 

Sulfites of: Potassium, calcium, magne- 
sium, sadium, allumina. 

Soda (carbonate of sodium); bleaching 
soda; boiler scale remedies containing 
soda; caustic soda, solid or liquid. 

Sulfuryl chlorid. 

Thorium. 

Thorium nitrate, thorium sulfate. 

Thorium salt solution (impregnating liq- 
uid). 

Allumina, artificial. 

Allumina hydrate. 

Roller composition for printer's rollers. 

Hydrogen gas. 

Bismuth salts and other bismuth com- 
pounds (except powders and rouges), as: 
Basic gallate of bismuth, salicylate of 
bismuth, nitrate of bismuth. 

Tin oxid, stannic acid, tin ashes or refuse 
of No. 301 of the tariff. 

Stannates and other tin compounds of Nos. 
309 and 317r of the statistical goods list, 
as: Acetate of tin, chlorid of tin (tin but- 
ter, tin salt), ammoniacal chlorid of tin 
(pink salt), stannate of sodium. 

v. VEHICLES. 

(Seealso under sections VII: "Electrotech- 
nical productions; " VIII : " Instruments 
and apparatus, optical glass;" XII: 
"Rubber and rubber goods;" and XIII: 
" Goods of the textile industry. ") 

(a) Warships and military vehicles of all 
kinds, as well as their component parts and 
appurtenances. 

Gun carriages. 
Caissons. 
Limbers. 

Searchlight wagons. 
Field ovens. 



Field kitchens. 
Field forges. 
Warships of all kinds. 
Sanitary wagons. 
Military vehicles, other. 
Torpedo protective nets. 

(6) Ships and ship receptacles. 

Boats. 

River and lake ships: 

Steamships. 

Motor ships. 

Sailing ships. 

Rowboats. 
Ocean ships: 

Steamships. 

Motor ships. 

Sailing ships. 

Ocean lighters. 
Pontoons. 
Floating docks. 
Tubular boilers for ships. 

(c) Aerial craft, as well as objects serving in 
their manufacture and in the carrying on of 
aerial navigation. 

Balloons (captive, free, pilot balloons). 
Kites. 

Aeroplanes (monoplanes, biplanes, etc.). 
Aeroplane hangars and tents. 
Airships. 
Airship sheds. 

Parts of aerial craft and hangars, and ap- 
purtenances, as: 

Aeronautical instruments. 

Driving gear (crank shafts, etc.). 

Cotton fabric, rubberized, for balloon 
covers. 

Benzine tanks. 

Free balloon covers. 

Skids. 

Elevating controls. 

Cover fabrics. 

Fuselages for aeroplanes. 

Motors. 

Nets for free balloons. 

Propellers, propeller blades. 

Searchlights. 

Searchlight carbons. 

Silk fabrics, varnished, for balloon 
covers. 

Longitudinal controls. 

Steel tubing. 

Steering planes. 

Control levers . 

Hydrogen gas. 

Cells. 

Cell fabric. 

Tenting cloth. 



80 



BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 



(d) Motor vehicles and parts thereof. 

Automobiles; motorcycles, chassis with 
motor built in, all these of 6 and more 
stamped (Steuer) horsepower, together 
with finished changing gears (except elec- 
trically-driven motor vehicles without 
regard to horsepower, and tricycles); all 
parts of motor vehicles, as: Axles, crank 
shafts, and sprocket wheels, finished or 
unfinished, tires, tubes, protective covers 
for rubber tires, igniting devices of every 
kind. 

(e) Bicycles and parts thereof. 

Absteller. 

Axles. 

Axle nuts. 

Steps. 

Brake levers. 

Rims. 

Forks. 

Fork tubes. 

Fork prongs. 

Handle bar grips. 

Chains. 

Crown wheels. 

Sprocket wheels. 

Chain adjusters. 

Cones. 

Mud guards. 

Ball bearing steering gear heads. 

Bearing brasses. 

Lamp holders. 

Handle bars. 

Hubs. 

Oils. 

Pedals. 

Finished and unfinished fore and hind 

wheels. 
Frames. 
Tires. 
Saddles. 
Saddle posts. 
Hinges. 
Inner tubes. 
Protective plating. 
Protective covers for tires. 
Spokes. 
Steel balls. 
Pedal cranks. 
Crown wheels. 
Sprocket wheels. 
Tension rods. 

(/) Ladders, transportable. 

VI. MACHINERY. 

Machines for making army and field cables. 
Steam and hydraulic forging presses and 
parts thereof. 



Electric machines: 

Armatures, completed. 
Choking coils. 
Dynamo machines. 
Elect romoters. 
Storage batteries, completed. 
Transformers. 
Converters. 

Flat and round knitting machines up 
to No. 10, inclusive. 
Hammers, mechanical (falling, air- 
pressure, spring hammers and other 
hammers driven by power transmis- 
sion), and parts thereof. 
Machines for producing wood pulp. 
Long-arm quilting machines with arm 

over 50 cm. long. 
Locomotives (steam), running on rails 
(locomotives with and without tenders, 
locomotive tenders) or not running on 
rails; parts thereof. 
Machines for working metals, wood, or 
stone (machine tools), and parts thereof. 
Riveting machines and parts thereof. 
Paper-making machines. 
Machines for filling cartridges. 
Powder-making machines. 
Machines for nailing soles. 
Machines for sewing soles, not with chain 

stitch. 
Machines for producing explosives. 
Barb wire machines and parts. 
Machines for making buttonholes in cloth. 
Internal combustion motors (except hori- 
zontal). 

Vn. ELECTROTECHNICAL PRODUCTS AND 
REQUISITES. 

(a) Machines. 

Armatures, completed. 

Choking coils. 

Dynamo machines. 

Electromotors. 

Storage batteries, completed. 

Transformers. 

Converters. 

(b) Articles connected with electric wiring. 

Wires, ropes, strands of copper, aluminum 
and their alloys, bare or covered, spun or 
braided with fabrics, varnish, or rubber, 
with or without metal covering, with or 
without metal armoring; except flexible, 
insulated wires of short length, which, as 
component parts of electric lighting appa- 
ratus, are connected therewith or which 
are provided with contact arrangements 
on both ends. 



GERMAN ELECTRICAL REQUISITES. 



81 



(c) Telegraphic appliances and their compo- 

nent parts. 

Type-printing telegraphs. 

Electromagnets. 

Inkers. 

Printing apparatus for long distances. 

Telegraphic receivers. 

Hughes apparatus. 

Inductors. 

Sounder telegraphs. 

Insulation testing instruments. 

Vacuum lightning protectors. 

Magnet inductors. 

Record tables. 

Morse recorders. 

Morse keys. 

Plate lightning protectors. 

Relays. 

Switches. 

Recording telegraphs. 

Current interrupters. 

Current reversers. 

Telegraph apparatus, transportable. 

Telegraph poles, of wood. 

Telegraph alarms. 

Telegraph works. 

Arrangements for the production of induc- 
tion currents. 

Alarms. 

Alarm stands. 

Needle telegraphs. 

Component parts of wiring equipment 
which are not subject to an embargo in 
themselves when intended for such 
equipment (for instance, insulators). 

(d) Telephone appliances (except wall and 
table stations), together with their compo- 
nent parts. 

Office jacks for multiple switches. 

Inquiry apparatus. 

Army telephones. 

Lighting protectors. 

Bose cartridges. 

Bose safety fuses. 

Circuit-closing devices. 

Electromagnets. 

Field telephones. 

Arrangements for establishing telephone 

connection. 
Long-distance telephones. 
Operators' meters. 
Incandescent lamps. 
Main distributors for multiple switches. 
Receivers. 
Inductors. 

Cable drums for field and army cables. 
Inductor switchboards. 

23057—16 6 



Carbon lightning protectors. 

Head receivers. 

Head telephones. 

Loud-speaking stations. 

Poles for aerial lines, of wood. 

Microphones. 

Microphone stations. 

Microtelephones . 

Patrol apparatus. 

Relays. 

Calling jacks. 

Switches. 

End signal galvanoscopes. 

Multiple switchboards. 

Fusing elements for carbon lightning pro- 
tectors. 

Speaking batteries of so-called field ele- 
ments. 

Speaking keys. 

Jumping signals. 

Subscriber jacks for multiple switches. 

Devices for producing induction currents 

Break jacks of the trunk junction board. 

Alarms. 

Intermediate distributors. 

Component parts of wiring equipment 
which are not subject to an embargo in 
themselves, if they are intended for such 
equipment (for instance, insulators). 

(e) Appliances for wireless telegraphy and 
telephony, together with their component 
parts. 

Aerial conductors. 

Aerial masts. 

Detectors. 

Electromagnets. 

Receiving apparatus. 

Coherers. 

Spark inductors. 

Transmitter condensers. 

Receivers. 

Inductors. 

Condensers. 

Morse recorders. 

Morse keys. 

Radiators. 

Relays. 

Switches. 

Current interrupters. 

Current reversers. 

Interrupters, electrolytic. 

Devices for producing induction currents. 

Alarms. 

Wave meters. 

Component parts of wiring equipment 
which are not subject to an embargo in 
themselves, if they are intended for such 
equipment, as insulators. 



82 



BELLIGERENT K.MB.MKii >ES. 



\fedical inztruiiHnts and apparatus. * 

Connect big apparatus. 

Apparatus for endoscopy. 

Apparatus, kinesipathic. 

Apparatus for high frequency therapy. 

Baths, hydroelectric. 

Radiating apparatus. 

Radioscopic screens. 

Electromagnets. 

Fat-reducing apparatus. 

Induction apparatus. 

Influence machines. 

Instruments, galvanocaustic. 

Compress^, .'lectrothermic (warming pil- 
lows, etc.). 

Light baths. 

Massaging apparatus. 

Regulating apparatus, tables. 

Rontgen apparatus, tubes. 

Protective devices against Rontgen rays 
(protective suits, gloves, walls). 

Valve tubes for Rontgen devices. 

Strengthening screens for Rontgen photo- 
graphs. 

(g) Other chctrotcchnic produris. 

Incandescent lights whi«h. owing to then- 
use . are subject to a special embargo; for 
instance, those for hand lamps, flash 
lights, and pocket lamps for telephone in- 
stallations and medical purposes. 

Component parts of incandescent lights 
(pistons, sockets, platinum wires, pre- 
pared glass rods and tubes). 

Incandescent igniting apparatus. 

Hand lamps, pocket lamps, and flash 
lights, as well as batteries and storage 
batteries suited therefor; component 
parts of such lights and batteries. 

Insulating tubes with sheet-iron or sheet- 
steel covering, for electric lines. 

Light-pure carbons (homogeneous or pro- 
vided with hard wire): except in sizes 
under the normal; petroleum coke. 

Mine-igniting apparatus. 

Searchlights and their component parts, 
except so-called searchlight lanterns. 

Special apparatus for transmitting com- 
mands and for long-distance compass 
transmission; component parts of such 
apparatus. 

Igniting apparatus for motor vehicles of 
every kind. 



Moreover: Electrotechnic products not 
specially forbidden, if they are goods 
which, owing to their quality, composi- 
tion, or use, fall under an export or transit 
embargo (as, parts of electric lighting 
devices for airships; ship installation ma- 
terial; electric pointing devices for big 
cannon; electric appurtenances of mili- 
tary vehicles). 



VIII. INSTRUMENTS AND APPARATUS; 
TICAL GLASS. 



OP- 



(See also Sections IV e: "Wound-dressing 
materials and medicines;'' and VII. EK- 
trotechnical products and requisites. 
Aeronautical and nautical measuring in- 
struments, including goniometric, as: 
Observation clocks. 
Chronometers (nautical watches). 
Sillometers. 
Level quadrants. 
Octants. 

Mariner's compasses and appurte- 
nances, including revolving com- 
passes and their transmissions. 
Sextants. 
Sea gauges. 
Breathing apparatus and apparatus for 

protection against smoke of all kinds. 
Bacteriological apparatus. 
Surgical and other medical instruments 
and apparatus; » parts of fever thermome- 
ters recognizable as such. 
Telescopes and field glasses of all kinds. 
(J lass, gray, for snow goggles. 
Mine and incandescent igniting apparatus. 
Optical glass: 

Crude and crudely pressed (even 
ground to test purity). 
Prisms and lenses, partially elaborated. 
Ground, moimted and unmounted: 
Objectives, photographic; other op- 
tical glasses (lenses, prisms, objec- 
tives). 2 
Photographic apparatus. 3 
Nautical charts and manuals. 
Safety lamps for mines, their appurte 
nances including igniting tape and all 
component parts. 
Sp rial apparatus for transmitting orders 
and for long-distance compass transmis- 
sion; component parts of such appa- 
ratus. 



1 Except instruments and apparatus exclusively intended far use in obstetrics and 
dentistry. 

2 Except spectacles, nose glasses, burning glasses, microscopes, magnifying glasses, and 
optical belt lens, apparatus for illuminating the sea, buoys, ship lanterns, including the 
requisite lenses and prismatic strips with arched grinding. 

3 Except cameras without objectives and except reproduction and enlarging apparatus. 



GERMAN ORES. 



83 



Pocket tinder boxes with oereum iron or 

oereum zinc igniters. 
Thermo bottles. 



ix. ores; coal; base metals and goods 

THEREFROM. 



(See also 



sections III, V, 
and VIII.) 

(a) Ores. 



VI, VII, 



Lead ores, lead ashes. 
Chrome ores (chromite). 
Iron ores: 

Brown hematite. 

Ferromanganese ore. 

Blackband. 

Magnetic iron ore. 

Oolitic iron ore. 

Liminite (bog ore). 

Red hematite. 

Siderite (spathic iron). 

Clay ironstone (clay band). 
Ferriferous gas-purifying composition, slag 

from smelteries, sinter for smelting. 
Ferrocyanese slag. 
Calcined pyrites. 
Copper ores. 
Manganese ores. 
Molybdenum ores. 
Nickel ores. 

Nickel slag for smelteries. 
Sulfur ore. 
Iron pyrites. 
Wolfram ores. 
Zinc ashes (zinc oxid). 
Zinc ores of all kinds. 

(b) Coal. 

Hard coal, anthracite, brown coal. 

Coke. 

Pressed coal (briquettes) made of hard and 

brown coal. 
Other artificial fuels made of hard and 

brown coals. 

(c) Base metals and products thereof. 
1. Aluminium and its alloys. 

Refuse. 

Old metal (scrap). 

Aluminium and its alloys, crude, elaborated 
(bars, sheets, blocks, eastings); 1 in- 
elaborated (plates, rods, 1 sticks). 

Aluminium powder. 

Sheet aluminium. 

Wire.* 

Spun articles. 

Woven ware. 



Children's toys. 

Sl rands.-' 

Magnalium (aluminium alloy). 
Tubes. 
Ropes. 2 
Sha\ tags. 

Goods, not mentioned hereinbefore, which 
consist wholly or chiefly of aluminium. 

2. Lead and lead alloys. 

Refuse. 

Old metal (scrap). 

Slag lead, hard lead. 

Sheet lead. 

Lead and lead alloys, crude, elaborated 
(bars, sheets, blocks, plates, rods, sticks). 

Lead filings (refuse from working of lead). 

Printer's type of lead and lead alloys. 

Wire. 

Glazier's lead. 

Children's toys. 

Soldering lead. 

Magnolia metal (lead alloy). 

Pipes. 

Sheet lead in rolls. 

Shot. 

Shavings. 

Tubes (for colors, etc.), unfilled. 

Goods not mentioned above and which 
consist oi lead wholly or with the excep- 
tion of insignificant parts (except lead 
tubes used for packing). 

Soft lead, crude, worked. 

Workable lead. 

Zinc lead. 

3. Iron and iron alloys. 

(Cf. also section B, No. 40.) 

a. Pig iron, old iron, and refuse. 

Refuse of all kinds. 

Refuse shavings (from turning, drilling, 

and planing; iron filings). 
Old iron. 

Old metal (scrap iron). 
Sheet-iron edges (refuse from sheet iron). 
Hammer scale (hammer slag). 
Pig iron containing less than 1 per cent 

phosphorus. 
Refuse from grinding. 
Ferrosilicon. crude. 
Bar-iron ends (refuse from working bar 

iron). 
Steel shavings (shaving like refuse from 

the working of iron [steel] — No. 842 of the 

tariff). 
Roller scale (roller slag). 



Refuse from tin plate. 

1 The export of matal building boxes w_iich consist for the most part of iron rods and 
connecting pieces of metal and only to a small extent of rods and plates of aluminum, is 
not prohibited. 

2 See Sec. VII ). 



84 



BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 



b. Other products. 

Axles, crude and completely finished, for 
power vehicles of all kinds. 

Axes. 

Hatchets. 

Pickaxes. 

Iron mountings for riding and driving 
harm 

Sheet iron of every kind and thickn. 
pansion sheet, checkered plate, stretched 
plate, waffle plate, rolled sheet metal, 
corrugated iron. 

Blocks (ingots); preliminarily rolled blocks 
(blooms); crucible steel blocks of special 
iron and special steel. 

Slabs of special iron and special steel. 

Cans, wholly or principally of tin plate, 
unfilled. 

Stirrups. 

Chromic iron, chromic steel, in blocks, sheet 
billets, billets, as crucible steel in blocks 
and in unformed rod-. 

Boxes (can-like receptacles), wholly or 
principally of tin plate, unfilled. 

Wire shears of all kinds. 

Wire ropes. 

Wire stretchers. 

Wire tongs. 

Printers' rollers. 

Iron, forgeablo, in rods, unformed, of 
special iron. 

Iron wire, rolled or drawn, crude, worked 
polished, varnished, zincked (galvanized) 
tinned, or covered with other base 
metals or alloys thereof, formed (fash- 
ioned), flattened (Nos. 791 and 792 of the 
tariff). 

Iron alloys (ferro compounds), not specially 
mentioned above or below, in blocks, 
sheet billets, billets, as crucible steel in 
blocks, and as unformed rods. 

Frost nails for horseshoes (a kind of horse- 
shoe nails). 

Driving harness parts, not specially men- 
tioned above or below. 

Field forges. 

Flat iron (rolled flat rods) (sheet billets'! , 
of special iron and special steel. 

Fusxangeln. 

Screw taps. 

Hoes (except "sheet" hoes). 

Domestic utensils, wholly or principally of 
tin plate. 

Horseshoes. 

Horseshoe Ste^kgriijc. 

Horseshoe calks (screw and Sted: calks). 

Horseshoe nails. 

Bridle bits. 



Chains: 

Anchor chains, ship chains, chains for 

towing. 
Chains for bicycles and motor vehicles. 
Parts of riding and driving harness. 
Billets of special iron and special steel. 
Chills. 
Kitchen utensils, wholly or principally of 

tin plate, 
(rank shafts, crude and finished, for motor 

\ ehicles of all kinds. 
Ferromanganese, manganese steel, in 
blocks, sheet 1 ilk'ts, billets, as crucible 
steel in blocks, and as unformed rods. 
Ferromolybdenum, molybdenum steel, in 
blocks, sheet billets, billets, as crucible 
steel in blocks and as unformed rods. 
Needles for surgical purposes. 
Nickel iron, nickel steel, in blocks, sheet 
billets, billets, as crucible steel in blocks 
and as unformed rods. 
Horse bits (bridle bits, snaffles, Pelham 

bits). 
Plantation cutters (Plantagenhauer). 
Billets (half products or iron-rolling mills), 

of special iron and special steel. 
Square iron (unformed rod iron), of special 

iron and special steel. 
Parts of riding harness, not specially men- 
tioned above or below. 
Pipes, crude or worked, even mechanically 
covered with copper, copper alloys, 
nickel, or aluminum, or chemically 
nickeled (doubled metal pipes) (Xos. 
77s, 779, 793, 794, 795, 798, 799 of the 
tariff): 
Of unforgeable cast iron (also pipe form 

pieces). 
Winding pipes, rolled or drawn (also 

pipe form pieces). 
Others made of forgeable iron: 
Rolled or drawn. 

Rabbeted, soldered, riveted, welded 
(but neither rolled nor drawn). 
Corrugated flues. (See Corrugated 

flue 

Round iron, round steel (unformed rod 
iron), of special iron and special steel. 

Shovels. 

Scythe blades. 

Sickle blades. 

Ferrosilicon, in blocks, sheet billets, billets, 
as crucible steel in blocks, and as un- 
formed rods. 

Spades. 

Spurs. 

Rod iron, not formed, of special iron and 
special steel. 

Barbed wire. 



GERMAN METALS. 



85 



Steel, if special steel, in blocks, sheet billets, 
billets, as crucible steel in blocks, and as 
unformed rod iron. 

Steel wire, rolled or drawn, crude, worked^ 
polished, varnished, zincked (galvanized), 
tinned, or covered with other base metals 
or alloys thereof, formed (fashioned), 
flattened (Nos. 791 and 792 of the tariff). 

Steel bottles, except the steel bottles (steel 
cylinders) used in shipping goods whose 
exportation is permitted, provided they 
are customary in the trade and are ex- 
ported with other goods for this purpose). 

Steel bodies for projectiles, crude and pre- 
liminary bored. 

Stirrups. 

Calks (screw and pin calks) for horseshoes. 

Knitting-machine needles of all sizes. 

Crucible steel in blocks of special steel. 

Snaffles (snaffle bits). 

Vanadium iron, vanadium steel (ferrovana. 
dium), in blocks sheet billets, billets, as 
crucible steel in blocks, and as unformed 
rods. 

Water tube boilers. 

Tin-plate goods of all kinds, wholly or prin- 
cipally of tin plate, provided they are not 
exported along with other goods as pack- 
ing in the form of boxes, cans, etc. 1 

Corrugated flues (tubes corrugated by 
rolling, drawing, etc.), with a wall thick- 
ness of 4.5 mm. or over. 

Tool steel. 

Ferrotungsten, tungsten steel, in blocks, 
sheet billets, billets, as crucible steel in 
blocks, and as unformed rods. 

Sprocket wheels, crude and finished, for 
motor vehicles of all kinds. 

4. Copper and copper alloys. 

Refuse. 

Alpaka (a kind of German silver). 

Old metal (scrap). 

Aluminum bronze (copper alloy). 

Argentan (copper alloy). 

Sheet copper. 

Bolt copper. 

Bronze (copper alloy). 

Delta metal (copper alloy). 

Wire. 2 

Durana metal (copper alloy). 

"Oak" metal (copper alloy). 

Driving and riding harness parts. 

Braided articles. 



(woven wire, metallic 



Woven articles 

cloth). 
Hammer scale. 
Hammer slag. 

i To tin plate articles belong not only those made wholly of tin plate, but also those 
made largely thereof. 
2 See Sec. VII b. 



Children's toys. 

Copper and copper alloys, crude, worked 

(bars, sheets, blocks, plates, rods, poles). 
Copper filings. 
Copper alloys, not specially menioned 

above and below. 
Strands. 2 

Manganese bronze (copper alloy). 
Manganin (copper alloy). 
Brass (copper alloy). 
Muntz metal (copper alloy). 
Oerman silver (copper alloy). 
Nickelin (copper alloy). 
Backfong (copper alloy). 
Tubes. 

Hard solder (copper alloy). 
Refuse from grinding. 
Black copper. 
Ropes. 2 
Shavings. 

Sterro metal (copper alloy). 
Tombac (copper alloy). 
Roller scale. 
Articles not mentioned above or below and 

consisting wholly or chiefly of copper. 
White copper (copper alloy). 
Cement copper. 

5. Nickel and nickel alloys. 

Refuse. 

Old metal (scrap). 

Sheet nickel. 

China silver (nickel alloy). 

Wire. 

Baits of driving and riding harness. 

Children's toys. 

Cuvettes. 

Nickel and nickel alloys, crude, worked 

(bars, sheets, blocks, castings, unworked 

plates, rods, bars). 
Tubes. 
Shavings. 
Articles not menti oned above and consist 

ing wholly or in part of nickel. 

G. Tin and tin alloys. 

Refuse. 

C Id metal (scrap). 

Argentine (tin alloy). 

Britannia metal (tin alloy). 

Wire. 

Children's toys. 

Tube?. 

Rolled tin. 

Soft solder (tin alloy). 

Silverin (finely divided metallic tin). 

Shavings. 

Color tubes, unfilled. 



86 



BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 



Articles not mentioned above or below 

and consisting wholly or chiefly of tin 
• :>t tin foil and tin color tubee 

for packing). 
Tin and tin alloys, crude, worked (bar-. 

sheets, blocks, plates, rods, pel' 
Tin toil (sheet tin), exported alone (not 

used in packing good- . 
Tin powder (pulverized tin). 

7. Othes base metals. 

Antimony. 

Cerium iron. 

Cerium.. 

Cerium zinc. 

Chrome. 

Fine zinc. 

Cadmium. 

Potassium. 

Magnesium, crude or as scrap; refuse from 

working it: metal magnesium powder. 
Manganese and its alloys. 
Molybdenum and it-- alloys. 
Sodium. 
Mercury. 
Silicon. 
Thorium. 

Vanadium and its aHoj s. 
Bismuth, crude. 
Tungsten. 
Zinc, crude (in blocks, tablets, lumps. 

disks, drops: old zinc, scrap zinc, hard 

zinc, resmelted zinc, zinc refu 
Zinc, stretchpd. rolled (>heet). crude. 

X. WOOD 1 \X!> WOOD PRODI'; Ts; CORK 
LND CORK GOODS; CELLULOID. 

(a) Wood and wood product?. 

Mine timber. 

Telegraph and other line poles. 

Railroad t tea. 

Wood paving blocks. 

Gun stocks. 'See also III d.) 

Spruce wood. 

Wood for the production of mechanically 
prepared wood pulp (wood paste, wood 
grindings). or of chemically prepared 
wood pulp (oeUulos 

Shavings or chipnings (from clearing, 
burning, roof, braiding, shoemaker, 
sword cutler, and the like, refuse shav- 
ings from planing, sawing (sawd isl . 
etc.). 

Firewoods of every kind: pine cores; lix- 
iviated tanning wood and lixiviated 
tanning bark, even formed (tan balls i. 

Naves, fellies, spokes, as well as wood recog- 
nizably prepared for these articles. 

1 Tanning wood, see 



Barrel wood Ma\ es and parts of bottoms), 
even planed; wood recognizably pre- 
pared for this purpose. 

Basket willows, even fascines. 

Staves for hoops | split lor barrel and sim- 
ilar hoo; 

Fine woods (erica or heath. COCoanut, 
cedar, I eeeh, ebony, mahogany, lignum- 
vit ". rosewood, teakwood, worked and 
unworked, even planed, rabbeted, 
grooved, chiseled, tapped, slitted). 
I her lumber and cabinet wood (wonted 
or unworked, even planed, rabbeted, 
grooved, chiseled, tapped, slitted . 

Beg wood. 

Charcoal, charcoal briquettes. 

Dyewoods (blue, yellow, rod wood). 

made of artificial wood (xylolith, 
wood paste, scifarin, etc.). 

Veneers, including wood hangings (not 
with inlaid work); plates produced by 
gluing veneers together for wall cover- 
ire- panels): crude veneered boards. 

Parts of parquet flooring. 

Wooden bungs. 

Wooden wire, wooden ta^ks. 

Canes (not with gul strings), even with 
ferrules. 

Barrels, bottoms of barrels, and other 
cooper article*, even metal hoops. 

yarn spools,, spindles (yarn spin- 
dles . weaver's reeds, teeth of weaver's 
reeds. 

Printers' tvpe. 

(b) Cork and cork goods. 

Cork, reduced into small pieces or flour. 
T'lates. strips, cubes with or without bark, 

cut tcTshape. 
Bark bungs. 
Stones, tiles, pipes, and par's of pipes 

made of cork refuse. 
Cork fender-. 
Cork di-ks. 

(c) Celluloid. 

XI. HIDES, SKIN'S, LEATHER, GOODS THERE- 
FROM, TANNING SUBSTANCES. 

(a) Hides and skins for leather manufacture, 
crudr. 

Buffalo hide-. 

Bull hides. 

Badger skins. 

Ass hides. 

Skins not specially mentioned above or 

below. 
Fish skins. 
Colt skins. 

87 3< XI, f. 1. 



GERMAN HIDES AND LEATHER. 



87 



I Tides not specially mentioned above or 

below. 
Deer skins. 

I tides of young cattle. 
Calfskins. 
Female calfskins. 
Dried cowhides. 
Reptile skins. 
Crocodile skins. 
Cowhides. 
Lambskins. 
Mule hides. 
Oxhides. 
Buckskins. 
Reptile skins. 
Cattle hides. 
TTorsehides. 

Sheepskins with hair removed. 
Sheepskins. 
■\Vild hog skins. 
Kid skins. 
Goatskins. 

(b) Skins for fur preparation, crude and 
worked. 
Lambskins. 1 

Opossum skins, Australian. 
Sheepskins. 1 

(c) Leather. 
Calf leather. 

Lamb and sheep leather, dressed.- 
Leather cuttings. 
Cattle leather of every mode of tanning, 

even split leather. 
Horse leather of every mode of tanning, 

even split leather. 
Hog leather. 

(d) Leather goods. 3 

Harness of all kinds. 

Suspenders. 

Men's shoes of all kinds weighing over 1,000 

g. a pair. 
Military gloves (brown, gray, lined, 

white). 
Articles of riding equipment. 
Boots of all kinds weighing over 1,000 g. 

a pair. 
Driving belts and their tracks, of leather 

or of crude hides with hair removed. 

(c) Fur goods (except ready-made. Ladies' 
and children's near). 

Lambskins. 1 

Australian opossum skins. 

Sheepskins. 1 



(f) Tanning substances. 

1. Tanning wood, tanning bark. 

Acacia baric. 

Oak bark. 

Tanning wood. 

Tanning bark (not mentioned above or 

below). 
Maletto bark. 
Mangrove bark. 
Mimosa bark. 
Coniferous wood bark. 

2. Other tanning substances. 
Algarobilla. 

Bablah. 
Canaigre. 

Chrome alum. 
Divi-divi. 
Acorn galls. 
Nutgalls. 

Tanning substances (not specially men- 
tioned above or belo*\-). 
Album graecum. 
Potash alum. 
Bichromate of potassium. 
Callnuis. 
Myrobalanes. 
Bichromate of sodium. 
Neradol. 
Sumach. 
Valonea. 

3. Extracts of tanning substances: 

Oak-wood extract. 

Pine-wood extract. 

Pine-bark extract. 

Xutgall extract. 

Tannings ubstance extracts (not specially 

mentioned above or below). 
Chestnut-wood extract. 
Catechu, brown (Bombay, Pegu catechu). 
Catechu, yellow (gambier). 
Quebracha-wood extract. 
Sumach extract. 

Xn. RUBBER AXD RUBBER GOODS. 

(See also sections V. (d.), "Motor vehicles 
and parts thereof/' and V. (e.), "Bicycles 
and parts thereof.") 

(a) Raw materials. 

Refuse from rubber, gutta-percha, and 
balata: worn-out pieces of articles made 
of rubber, gutta-percha, and balata. 

Balata, crude, purified. 



1 Except broadtails, Persians, Schiras, moire-astrakhan, crude and colored, crude 
and colored Crimean lambskins, colored Schmaschen. 

2 Except glove leather and patent leather. 
s Cf. Sec. B, No. 40. 



8S 



BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 



Gutta-percha, crude, purified. 

Caoutchouc (rubber, not including gums, 
as gum arabic, acajou, cherry gum, 
cutera, and bassora gum). 

Oil rubber (faktis) and other rubber sub- 
stitutes. 

(b) Goods made of soft rubber (except goods of 

gutta-percha), i 
Parings. 

Flesh brushes. 

Heel pieces, heels. 

Balls, even those covered with fabrics or 

felt, etc. 

Bandages. 

Bags (ice bags, etc.). 

Billiard cushions. 

Rubber bands. 

Brake bands and brake blocks of woven 

fabrics saturated with tar or rubber, etc. 

Trusses. 

Printer's type. 

Brushes (toothbrushes) with teeth of soft 

rubber. 

Covers: 

Floor covers. 

Protective covers for tires. 

Carriage covers made of textiles 
saturated with rubber. 
Padded valves, washers, packing rings. 
Rubber cloth cylinder covers for factories. 
Cords (rubber cords), even spun over with 

textile fabrics, etc. 
Friction strips. 
Floor carpets. 
Textiles, even felt, saturated, covered, etc., 

with rubber, not specially mentioned. 
Rubber for medical instruments and ap- 
paratus of all kinds. 
Gutta-percha paper. . 
Gloves: 

Flesh gloves. 

Patent rubber gloves. 

Other rubber gloves. 
Suspenders. 
Horseshoe pads. 
Insulating tape. 
Rubber solution. 
Cushions (air, water cushions). 
Piston packings of coarse textiles, etc., 

with rubber, etc. 
Compressers. 
Card cloths. 
Soft rubber spheres. 
Leather substitutes of vegetable textiles 

and rubber solutions. 
Leather cloth, rubberized. 
Okonite tape. 
Pedal rubber. 



Plates: 

Rubber plates, rolled, even with wire 
or woven wire rolled in. 

Patent plates (cut rubber plates). 

Plates of regenerated rubber. 

Rubber plates, with textiles or felt 
rolled in or on them. 

Others. 
Preservatives and pessaries. 
Rubber erasers. 
Vehicle tires. 
Shaving dishes. 

Parts of riding and driving harness (bridle 
bits, snaffles, Pelham bits, stirrups, 
mountings, etc.). 
Rubber rings. 
Tubes: 

For vehicle wheels (tires). 

Ass terns for artificial flowers. 

Insulating tubes. 
Cords made of textiles or felt with rubber 

(packing cords, rubber cords). 
Rubber heels. 
Rubber shoes. 
Elastics for shoes. 
Elastic shoe bands. 
Rubber sponges. 
Sponge rubber goods. 
Rubber soles. 
Sole guards. 

Syringes (pear-shaped, globular, etc.). 
Stamps. 
Canes. 
Stuffing-box packing of coarse textiles, etc., 

with rubber, etc. 
Rubber strips. 
Tobacco pipestems. 
Pouches of soft rubber, even of textile 

saturated with rubber, etc. 
Paste. 
Driving belts of textile fabrics saturated 

with rubber, etc. (balata belts, etc.). 
Rubber cloths. 
Rollers, etc., covered with rubber. 

(c) Goods made of hard rubber. 

Balls. 

Billiard balls. 

Ebonite in plates, sticks. 

Penholders and parts thereof. 

Pens (so-called package pens). 

Graphophone disks (records). 

Instruments, as: surgical. 

Rubber horn paste, in plates, sticks. 

Mouthpieces. 

Whips. 

Phonograph cylinders. 

Plates. 



Exportation and transit carriage of gutta-percha'paper forbidden. 



GERMAN TEXTILE GOODS. 



89 



Jute yarn. 

Camel's hair yarn. 

Cocoanut fiber yarn. 

Linen yarn (yarn from flax or flax oakum). 

Linen twine (twine from flax yarn or flax 

oakum yarn). 
Ramie yarn, even mixed with flax or jute, 

but without admixture of other fibers 

(except ramie weaving yarn). 
Woolen yarn (combed yarn or worsted, 

and carded yarn). 

(c) Goods. 

Cotton fabrics for articles of equipment 
(haversacks, tent cloths) as far as these 
articles are made of yarns from Nos. 6 to 
25 (English). 

Cotton fabrics, rubberized, for balloon 
envelopes and aeroplanes. 

Blankets, woolen (horse blankets and 
others). 

Drill (brown and gray drill [Manchester or 
Genoa cords]) of cotton. 

Fishing nets. 2 

Textiles of all kinds for the manufacture of 
aircraft (balloons, airships, aeroplanes). 

Suspenders. 

Jute fabrics. 

Jute bags, even if they are to be exported 
with goods as receptacles thereof. 3 

"Cartridge bag goods," "powder cloth." 

Cartridge silk. 

Linen and semilinen fabrics (linen and 
half linen). 4 

Nets for free balloons. 

Paper machine felts, woolen. 

Crude ramie hose or pieces thereof, loosely 
woven or worked, for incandescent-ligbt 
mantles. 

Knapsacks (large, for slinging over shoul- 
der). 5 

Sleeping and traveling coverlets of cotton, 
in finished pieces or by the yard. 

Silk fabrics, varnished, for balloon en- 
velopes and covering aeroplanes. 

Fabrics of all kinds made of carded silk 
yarn (so-called bourette fabrics of silk 
oakum). 

Ropes and cordage of all kinds. 

Bandage gauze and other bandage ma- 
terials of textiles of all kinds. 

Bandages. 

Cotton used in dressing wounds. 

Tricot and net stuffs, woolen. 

Tricot and net goods, woolen. 6 

1 Except bleached, colored, and printed, in the Lohnveredlungsverkehr, and wire yarn. 

8 Except those made of cotton fabrics of No. 30/15 ply English on and finer numbers. 

» Except such as can be proven to have been previously imported into the country to 
be filled, or whose reimportation after being emptied abroad is guaranteed. 

* Except ribbons, passementerie, lace, shirts, bosoms, removable bosoms, collars, 
cuffs (men's, women's, and children's linen). 

5 See also Sec. B, No. 40. 

6 Except women's and children's gloves. 



Raw pressings. 

Tubes. 

Syringes. 

Rods. 

Canes. 

Tobacco pipestems. 

Violin chin rests. 

XIII. GOODS OF THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY. 

(o) Raw materials and refuse. 

Refuse from animal and vegetable fibers, 
not mentioned below, capable of being 
spun (even silk); of textiles (woolen rags, 
list; linen, cotton, etc., rags [paper rags], 
and all other refuse of textiles, etc., used 
in paper making [old nets], old cordage, 
old string, weaver's lace of yarn, no 
longer available for the original purpose). 

Cotton. 

Cotton refuse of all kinds (linters, etc.). 

Flax. 

Flax oakum, capable of being spun. 

Hemp. 

Hemp oakum, capable of being spun. 

Jute. 

Jute oakum, capable of being spun. 

Camel's hair and alpaca hair (alpaca wool) , 
raw and worked (hackled, bleached, 
steeped, colored, carded, combed), 
combings thereof. 

Cocoanut fibers. 

Artificial cotton. 

Artificial wool (shoddy). 

Horsehair (from the mane or tail), raw, 
boiled, of No. 146 of the tari '. 

Waste. 

Ramie (China grass), raw, cleaned, steeped, 
broken, scutched (ungummed). 

Cattle tail hair, raw, unworked. 

Wool, even carded or combed. 

Wool refuse, capable of being spun (comb- 
ings, etc.). 

Wool dust fertilizer. 

Goat hair, raw, unworked. 

(b) Spun goods. 

Alpaca yarn (yarn from hair of the alpaca). 
Cotton yarn up to No. 32 English, of 
one, two, or more threads, twisted once, 
raw, colored, bleached, printed. 1 

Binding twine of Manila hemp, sisal hemp, 
etc. 

Hemp yarn, hemp oakum yarn. 

Hemp twine. 



<)() 



BELLIGERENT KMBAIKiOES. 



Woolen fabrics weighing over 300 g. to the 
square meter of woven surface. 1 

(ells and cell materials for airships and 
balloons. 

Tent stufls. 

XIV. PAPER. 

Halfstuff 'for preparing paper and paste- 
board), made from refuse from textile 
fabrics or the like of No. 649 of the tariff. 

Wood pulp, mechanically prepared (wood 
paste, ground wood). 

Wood pulp, chemically prepared (cellu- 
lose). 

Newspaper print ing paper. 



xv 



EARTHS. STdNKS, AND GOODS THERE- 
FROM. 



Asbestos, crude, also ground. 
Asbestos paints. 
Asbestos fibers. 
Asbestos goods, as: 

Bags. 

Boat coverings. 

Washers. 

Packing rings. 

Wicks, braided or woven. 

Filters, filter composition. 

Gaiters. 

Yarn, string, rope, cord. 

Braid, asbestos rubber braid. 

Woven work, asbestos rubber texture, 
not specially mentioned above or 
below. 

Gloves. 

Hats. 

Boiler revetments. 

Clothing. 

Klingerite. 

Masks. 

Mattresses. 

Caps. 

Packing. 

Paper, pasteboard, undulated paste- 
board. 

Plates. 

Rings. 

Hose. 

Shoes, boots, soles. 

Kettle holders. 

Kettle maps. 

Carrying cloths. 

Cloth plates. 
Asbestos cement bricks. 
Asbestos cement plates (fiber cement 
plates, eternite slate plate, asbestos ce- 
ment slate). 



Bauxite, unpurified. 

Mica, crude, even in crude plates or disks. 

Mica and micanite goods. 

Mica plates, cut to shape. 

Mica disks, cut to shape. 

Graphite of all kinds. - 

Refuse from graphite crucibles. 

lime, natural phosphate of (raw phos- 
phate, phosphorite, apatite, coprolith, 
navassite. sombrerite, Iceland guano). 

Fossil dust (infusorial earth). 

Magnesite (natural carbonate of magnesia), 
even burned (bitter earth, earthy talc). 

Magnesite goods (fireproof goods of burned 
magnesite of Xos. 724 and 72."> of the 
tariff, such as nozzles, caps, muffles, 
plates, retorts, pipes, crucibles, stones, 
cylinders, and others). 

Micanite (artificial mica, produced from 
mica flakes with an adhesive substance). 

Quartzite. 

Crucibles of graphite. 

Emery, ground. 

Emery wheels. 

Heavy spar, barite (natural sulfate of 
barium), even powdered or ground. 

Bricks, fireproof (fire brick, Dinas brick, 
silica brick, and other quartz bricks, 
bauxite, magnesia, and carbon bricks). 

Alumina for aluminium production. 

XVI. WAX, LIGHTS, SOAP, ETC. 

Polishing wax, consisting of wax or ceresin 
with addition of turpentine oil or the 
like. 

Ozocerite, refined, and ceresin in blocks, 
tablets, or balls; wax tips of purified 
ozocerite and of ceresin (No. 249 of the 
tariff) .s 

Fashioning (modeling) substances of min- 
eral substances, produced with stearin, 
palm it in, paraffin, wax, or resin. 

Lights (candles) of all kinds, made of wax, 
ceresin. paraffin, stearin, spermaceti, tal- 
low, or the like, except night lights of all 
kinds. 

Polishing stones, artificial (of burned, 
ground, or washed earths, formed with 
stearin, tallow, etc.). 

Cleaners, made with fats, oils, or soap 
(cleaning oils, pomades, soaps). 

Lubricants (except wagon grease), made 
with fats or oils, liquid or solid, even 
formed. 

Shoe polish (except black, nonliquid), 
even when made with wax or ceresin. 

1 Except floor carpets, closely woven textiles for fitting out furniture and rooms, 
velvet and plush, and velvetlike and plushlike fabrics. 

2 The exportation and transit carriage of retort graphite is permitted. 

3 Exportation only forbidden. 



GERMAN SUPPLEMENTARY LISTS. 



91 



Soap: 

Solid soap of all kinds. 

Mineral (sand) soap (cleaner). 

Cleaning soaps. 

Soft soap. 

Alumina soap (aluminium palmitate). 
Soap boiler's lye. 
Turkey red oil. 



Wax of Nos. 73, 141, and 247 of the tariff 
(vegetable wax [carnauba, Japan, sumac, 
myrtle wax], bees and other insect wax, 
crude, prepared; wax tips; tree wax [wax 
cement, sticking wax]). 1 

XVII. ARTICLES OF UNIFORM AND AKMY 
EQUIPMENT, AND PARTS THEREOF RECOG- 
NIZABLE as such. (Cf. Sec. B, No. 40.) 



FIRST SUPPLEMENT. 



[56th proclamation.] 



(Imperial Advertiser Xo. 98, of Apr. 28, 19J5.) 

On the basis of §2 of the Imperial Ordejr of July 31, 1914, concerning 
the embargo on the exportation and transit carriage of arms, ammuni- 
tion, powder, etc., I hereby bring the following to the public knowledge: 

The exportation of the following articles is prohibited: 

Maps, travelers' guide-;, and traveling manuals. However, the exportation to neutral 
countries ofmaps, travelers' guides, and traveling manuals produced in Germany shall 
be permitted provided they do not represent or discuss any German, Austrian, or 
Turkish territory. 

Delbruck, Deputy Imperial Chancellor. 

Berlin, April 28, 1915. 

Second Supplement. 

[57th proclamation.] 

(Imperial Advertiser No. 103, of May 4, 1915. 

On the basis of §2 of the Imperial Orders of July 31 , 1914, concerning 
the embargo (1) on the exportation and transit carriage of arms, am- 
munition, powder, etc., (2) the exportation and transit carriage of 
raw materials used in producing and operating munitions of war, and 
(3) the exportation of motor vehicles and crude mineral oils, anthracite 
coal tar, and all oils produced therefrom, I hereby bring the following 
to the public knowledge: 

The exportation and transit carriage of the following articles are 
prohibited : 

Steel bottles of all kinds, empty and filled. 

Photographic cameras, even without objectives, and of closing mechanisms for photo- 
graphic objectives. 

Signal horns for automobiles. 
Kapok. 

Delbruck. t)eputy Imperial Chancellor. 

Berlin, May 2, 1915. 

THIRD SlVPLEMENT. 

[58th proclamation.] 

(Imperial Advertiser No. 106 of May 7, 1915.) 

On the basis of §2 of the Imperial Orders of July 31 , 1914, concerning 
the embargo (1) on the exportation and transit carriage of arms, am- 
munition, powder, etc., and (2) on the exportation and transit carriage 



1 Exportation only forbidden. 



92 BELLIGERENT EMBARGOES. 

of raw materials used in the production and operation of munitions 
of war, etc., I hereby bring the following to the public knowledge: 

The exportation and transit carriage of the following articles are 
prohibited: 

Tannic acid (tannin), gallic acid. Tussur silk. 

Salts of antimony and other compounds of Blue-figured cotton fabrics for stockings. 

antimony. Clay, raw and burned. 

Salts of ammonia and other ammonia com- Refuse pots and fragments from saggars 

pounds. and kilns. 

Chrome salts and other chrome compounds. Fragments of fire brick (chamotte stone). 

Ferrocyanid of potassium, yellow cyanid Oilcloth. 

of patassium, of statistical number 308a. Cotton fabrics of tariff No. 456, prepared, 
Floret silk (floss silk). bleached. 

Yarn of bourrette (noils of carded waste silk). 

Berlin*, May 7, 1915. 

Delbruck, Deputy Imperial Chancellor. 

[59th proclamation.] 
(Imperial Advertiser No. 108, of May 10, 1915.) 

On the basis of §2 of the Imperial order of July 31, 1914, concern- 
ing the embargo on the exportation and transit carriage of arms, 
ammunition, powder, etc., I hereby bring the following to the public 
knowledge : 

The exportation and transit carriage of the following articles is pro- 
hibited : 

Steam turbines of all kinds. 

Berlin, May 10, 1915. 

Delbruck, Deputy Imperial Chancellor. 

[60th copy from Xo. 108 of the Imperial Advertiser of May 10, 1915.] 

The list of articles whose exportation and transit carriage as articles 
of uniform or of army equipment are forbidden (published in the un- 
official part of the German Imperial Advertiser No. 6 of January 8, 
1815), is to have the following addition made under II a: 



Army pocket compasses. 
Berlin, May 10, 1915. 



Delbruck, Deputy Imperial Chancellor. 



V. 

DECLARATION OF LONDON. 1 

Introduction. — The Declaration of London of 1909, the 
work of the delegates of ten naval powers, was declared 
to correspond u in substance with the generally recog- 
nized principles of international law" of naval warfare. 
This declaration has not been ratified and proclaimed by 
any belligerent state. The rules published by the bel- 
ligerents soon after the outbreak of the war in 1914 em- 
bodied a large part of the declaration, usually following 
the declaration textually so far as possible in a transla- 
tion into a foreign language. The official language of the 
declaration was the French. From some of the articles 
of the declaration there has been a departure which has 
generally become wider as the war has progressed. It is 
too early for final decision as to whether these departures 
will be regarded as in violation of international law be- 
cause not in accord with the declaration. The declara- 
tion has in any case been of great service in furnishing a 
standard to which reference could be had in testing acts 
involving the rights of neutrals and belligerents. It may 
be reasonable to suppose that the principles embodied 
in the declaration will receive serious consideration in 
determining the validity of acts covered by its provisions. 

The Declaration of London and reference to some of 
its relations to the conduct of hostilities since July, 1914, 
is exhibited on pages 100 to 117. 

The Senate of the L T nited States advised the ratification 
of this declaration, April 24, 1912. The declaration was 
never proclaimed. 

Negotiations concerning declaration of London, 1914. — 
The attempt of the United States to secure the observ- 
ance of the principles of the declaration in 1914 is shown 
in the following correspondence: 

1 The complete French and English text of the declaration of London, with the offi- 
cial report, is printed in Naval War College, International Law Topics, 1909. 

93 



9-4 DECLARATION OF LONDON. 

File Xo. 763.72112 48a.] 

The Secretary of State to Ambassador \V. II. Page. 1 
[Telegram— Paraphrase. 1 

Department of £ tate, 
Washington. August 6, 1914, 1 p. m. 
Mr. Bryan instructs Mr. Page to inquire whether the British Govern- 
ment is willing to agree that the laws of naval warfare as laid down by 
the Declaration of London of 11)09 shall be applicable to naval warfare 
during the present conflict in Europe provided that the Governments 
with whom Great Britain is or may be at war also agree to such appli- 
cation. Mr. Bryan further instructs Mr. Page to state that the Govern- 
ment of the United States believes that an acceptance of these laws by 
the belligerents would prevent grave misunderstandings which may 
arise as to the relations 1 etween neutral powers and the belligerents. 
Mr. Bryan adds that it is earnestly hoped that this inquiry may receive 
favorable consideration. 



File No. 763.72112 81.] 

Ambassador Penfield to the Secretary of State. 
[Telegram.] 

American" Embassy. 
Vienna. August 13, 1914 — 8 p. m. 
Your August 6th. Austria-Hungarian Government have instructed 
their forces to observe stipulations of Declaration of London as applied 
to naval as well as land warfare during present conflict conditional on 
like observance on part of the enemy. 

Penfield. 

File No. 763.72112; 102.] 

Charge IVilson to the Secretary of State. 
[Telegram— Paraphrase.] 

Ameri c a n E m b assy, 

St. Petersburg. August 20, 1914 — 2 p. m. 
Mr. Wilson refers to Department's August 19, 4 p. m.. and reports 
that the Russian Government is still awaiting the decision of the British 
Government, as Russia will take similar action. Mr. Wilson adds that 
the Foreign Office does not expect that Great Britain will decide to 
observe the Declaration of London. 

i (Same mutatis mutandis to: The American Embassies at St. Petersburg, Paris, 
Berlin, and Vienna, and the American Legation at Brussels.) 



NEGOTIATIONS, 1914. 95 

File No. 763.72112/108.] 

Ambassador Gerard to the Secretary of State. 
[Telegram — Paraphrase.] 

American Embassy, 
Berlin, August 22, 1914 — 12 midnight. 
Mr. Gerard refers to Department's August 19, 4 p. m.. and says his 
August 20, 1 a. m., by way of Copenhagen, states that the German 
Government will apply the Declaration of London, provided its pro- 
visions are not disregarded by other belligerents. 

File No. 763.72112/126.] 

Ambassador W. H. Page to the Secretary of State. 

No. 420.] American Embassy, 

London. August 27. 1914. 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith inclosed a copy of the 
note from the Foreign Office I telegraphed you on the 26th instant 
(No. 483) defining the attitude of the British Government with regard 
to the so-called Declaration of London, 1909, together with a copy of a 
memorandum which accompanied the note, and a copy of the King's 
order in council of the 20th instant relating to this matter. 

There will also be found attached a copy of a circular note I have just 
received from the Foreign Office relating to the same order in council 
and to the rules governing the proceedings in the British prize courts. 
Another copy of the King's order in council of the 20th instant, which 
accompanied the circular note, is inclosed herewith, and there will be 
found as well, in the pouch which accompanies this dispatch, six copies 
of the Prize Court Rules. 
I have, etc., 

Walter Hines Page. 

[Inclosure 1.] 

The Minister for Foreign Affairs to Ambassador W. H. Page. 

No. 37230/14.] 

Foreign Office. 
London, August 22. 1914- 

Your Excellency: On the 7th instant you were so good as to address 
to me a note inquiring, pursuant to instructions from the Secretary of 
State at Washington, whether His Majesty's Government were willing 
to agree that the laws of naval warfare, as laid down by the Decimation 
of London, 1909, should be applicable to naval warfare during the pres- 
ent European conflict, provided that the Governments with whom 
Great Britain is at war, or with whom her relations are not normal, 
also agree to such application. 

Your excellency added that it was the belief of your Government that 
the acceptance of these laws by the belligerents would prevent the 



96 DECLARATION OF LONDON. 

possibility of grave misunderstandings as to the relations between 
belligerents and neutrals. 

I have the honor to inform your excellency that His Majesty's Gov- 
ernment, who attach great importance to the views expressed in your 
excellency's note and are animated by a keen desire to consult so far 
as possible the interests of neutral countries, have given this matter 
their most careful consideration and have pleasure in stating that they 
have decided to adopt generally the rules of the declaration in question, 
subject to certain modifications and additions which they judge indis- 
pensable to the efficient conduct of their naval operations. A detailed 
explanation of these additions and modifications is contained in the 
inclosed memorandum. 

The necessary steps to carry the above decision into effect have now 
been taken by the issue of an order in council, of which I have the 
honor to inclose copies herein for your excellency's information and for 
transmission to your Government. 

I may add that His Majesty's Government, in deciding to adhere to 
the rules of the Declaration of London, subject only to the aforesaid 
modifications and additions, have not waited to learn the intentions of 
the enemy Governments, but have been actuated by a desire to termi- 
nate at the earliest moment the condition of uncertainty which has 
been prejudicing the interests of neutral trade. 
I have, etc.. 

E. A. Crowe. 
[Inclosure 2.] 

MEMORANDUM. 

1. The lists of contraband already published by His Majesty are 
substituted for those contained in articles 22 and 24 of the Declaration 
of London. Lists similar to those published by His Majesty have been 
issued by the French Government. 

2. His Majesty's Government do not feel able to accept in its entirety 
the rule laid down in article 38 of the declaration. It has been the prac- 
tice of the British Xavy to treat as liable to capture a vessel which car- 
ried contraband of war with false papers if she was encountered on the 
return voyage, and to this exception His Majesty's Government feel it 
necessary to adhere. 

3. The peculiar conditions in the present war due to the fact that 
neutral ports such as Rotterdam are the chief means of access to a large 
part of Germany and that exceptional measures have been taken in 
the enemy country for the control by the Government of the entire 
supply of foodstuffs have convinced His Majesty's Government that 
modifications are required in the applications of articles 34 and 35 of 
the declaration. These modifications are contained in paragraphs 3 
and 5 of the accompanying order in council. 

4. Article 15 of the declaration contains a provision as to presumptive 
knowledge of the blockade in certain cases if the vessel has sailed from 
a neutral port. No mention is made of British or allied enemy ports. 
These omissions are supplied by article 4 of the order in council. 



BRITISH ORDER IN COUNCIL, 1914. 97 

The order in council also provides for the acceptance of the very 
valuable commentary on the declaration which was embodied in the 
general report prepared by Monsieur Renault. 

[Inclosure 3.] 



ORDER IN COUNCIL. 



Directing the adoption and enforcement during the present hostilities 
of the convention, known as the Declaration of London, subject to 
additions and modifications. 

1914. No. 1260. 

At the court at Buckingham Palace, the 20th day of August, 1914. 
Present, The King's Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

Whereas during the present hostilities the naval forces of His Majesty 
will cooperate with the French and Russian naval forces; and 

"Whereas it is desirable that the naval operations of the allied forces 
so far as they affect neutral ships and commerce should be conducted 
on similar principles; and 

"Whereas the Governments of France and Russia have informed His 
Majesty's Government that during the present hostilities it is their 
intention to act in accordance with the provisions of the convention 
known as the Declaration of London, signed on the 26th day of Febru- 
ary, 1909, so far as may be practicable. 

Now, therefore, His Majesty, by and with the advice of his Privy 
Council, is pleased to order, and it is hereby ordered, that during the 
present hostilities the convention known as the Declaration of London 
shall, subject to the following additions and modifications, be adopted 
and put in force by His Majesty's Government as if the same had been 
ratified by His Majesty: 

The additions and modifications are as follows: 

(1) The lists of absolute and conditional contraband contained in 
the proclamation dated August 4, 1914, shall be substituted for the lists 
contained in articles 22 and 24 of the said declaration. 

(2) A neutral vessel which succeeded in carrying contraband to the 
enemy with false papers may be detained for having carried such con- 
traband if she is encountered before she has completed her return 
voyage. 

(3) The destination referred to in article 33 may be inferred from any 
sufficient evidence, and (in addition to the presumption laid down in 
article 34) shall be presumed to exist if the goods are consigned to or 
for an agent of the enemy State or to or for a merchant or other person 
under the control of the authorities of the enemy State. 

(4) The existence of a blockade shall be presumed to be known — 
(a) To all ships which sailed from or touched at an enemy port a 

sufficient time after the notification of the blockade to the local authori- 

1 The above was repealed by the Order in Council of Oct. 29, 1914. 
23057—16 7 



98 DECLARATION OF LONDON. 

tics to have enabled the enemy Government to make known the 
existence of the blockade; 

(6) To all ships which sailed from or touched at a British or allied 
pori alter the publication of the declaration of blockade. 

(5 Notwithstanding the provisions of article 35 of the said declara- 
tion, conditional contraband, if shown to have the destination referred 
to in article 32, is liable to capture, to whatever port the vessel is 
bound and at whatever port the cargo is to be discharged. 

(6) The general report of the drafting committee on the said declara- 
tion presented to the Naval Conference and adopted by th'Monference 
at the eleventh plenary meeting on February 25, 1909, shall be consid- 
ered by all prize courts as an authoritative statement of the meaning 
and intention of the said declaration, and such courts shall construe 
and interpret the provisions of the said declaration by the light of the 
commentary given therein. 

And the lords commissioners of His Majesty's treasury, the lords 
commissioner of the admiralty, and each of His Majesty's principal 
secretaries of state, the president of the probate, divorce, and admiralty 
division of the high court of justice, all other judges of His Majesty's 
prize courts, and all governors, officers, and authorities whom it may 
concern are to give the necessary directions herein as to them may 
resp< etively appertain. 

Almehic Fitzroy. 



File No. 763.72112 112.] 

Charge Wilson to the Secretary of State. 

[Telegram.] 

American Embassy, 
St. Petersburg, August 27, 1914- 
Russian Government accepts Declaration of London with exact 
modifications adopted by England and France. 

Wilson. 



File No. 763.72112 120.] 

Ambassador Her rich to the Secretary of State. 

[Telegram.] 

American' Embassy, 
Paris, September 3, 1914. 
The French Government will observe the provisions of the Declaration 
of London with following reservation: Article 1. The declaration signed 
in London on February 26, 1999, concerning the legislation of naval 
war shall be applied during the war subject to the following additions 
and modifications: 

One. The lists of absolute and conditional contraband notified by 
publication in the Journal Officiel of August 11, 1914, are substituted 
for those contained in articles 22 and 24 of the declaration. Notices 
published in the Journal Officiel shall eventually make known any 
new additions or modifications to said lie 



POSITION OF UNITED STATES, 1914. 99 

Two. Any neutral ship which may have succeeded in carrying con- 
traband to the enemy by means of false papers may be seized under this 
accusation if met with before completing its return journey. 

Three. The purpose within the meaning of article 33 of the declara- 
tion may be inferred from any sufficient proof, and (besides the assump- 
tion contained in article 34) shall be considered as existing if the 
merchandise is consigned to or in the name of an agent of the enemy 
or to or in the name of any dealer or of any other person acting under 
the control of the authorities of the enemy. 

Four. The existence of a blockade shall be deemed known (a) for 
all ships starting from or touching at an enemy's port within a sufficient 
delay after notification of blockade to the local authorities to have 
allowed the enemy's government to make known the existence of the 
blockade; (b) for all ships which may have left or touched at a French 
or ally's port after publication of declaration of blockade. 

Five. Notwithstanding the provisions of article 35 of the declaration 
the conditional contraband, if it is proved that its destination comes 
within the meaning of article 33, is liable to capture, whatever may be 
the port of destination of the ship and the port where the cargo is to be 
unloaded. 

Only change made in Journal Officiel of August 11, 1914, is transfer 
of balloons, flying machines, etc., from conditional contraband list to 
absolute contraband list. Article 22 still, then, contains 12 subdivi- 
sions, 12 referring to balloons and flying machines, and article 24, 13 
subdivisions, subdivision 8 being eliminated and becoming subdivision 
12 of absolute contraband. 

Herrick. 

The Acting Secretary of State to Ambassador W. H. Page. 

[Telegram.] 

373.] Department of State, 

Washington, October 22, 1914 — 4 p. m. 

Your No. 864, October 19, Declaration of London. 

Inasmuch as the British Government consider that the conditions 
of the present European conflict make it impossible for them to accept 
without modification the Declaration of London, you are requested to 
inform His Majesty's Government that in the circumstances the Gov- 
ernment of the United States feels obliged to withdraw its suggestion 
that the Declaration of London be adopted as a temporary code of naval 
warfare to be observed by belligerents and neutrals during the present 
war; that therefore this Government will insist that the rights and 
duties of the United States and its citizens in the present war be 
defined by the existing rules of international law and the treaties of 
the United States irrespective of the provisions of the Declaration of 
London; and that this Government reserves to itself the right to enter 
a, protest or demand in each case in which those rights and duties so 
defined are violated or their free exercise interfered with by the authori- 
ties of His Britannic Majesty's Government. 

Lansing. 



100 DECLARATION OF LONDON. 

File N'o. 763.72112/226a.] 

7% Acting Secretary of State to Ambassador Gerard. 1 

[Telegram— Paraphrase.] 

Department of State, 
Washington, October 24, 1914 — op. m. 
axing to department's August 6, 1 p. m.. and embassy's October 
22, relative to the Declaration of London. Mr. .Lansing instructs Mr. 
Gerard to inform the German Government that the suggestion of the 
department to belligerents as to the adoption of declaration for sake 
of uniformity as to a temporary code of naval warfare during the present 
conflict has boon withdrawn because some of the belligerents are 
unwilling to accept the declaration without modifications and that this 
Government will therefore insist that the rights and duties of the 
Government and citizens of the United States in the present war be 
defined by existing rules of international law and the treaties of the 
United States without regard to the provisions of the declaration and 
that the Government of the United Sti rves to itself the right 

to enter a protest or demand in every case in which the rights and 
duties so defined are violated or their free exercise interfered with by 
the authorities of the belligerent Governments. 

The Declaration of London and European practice. — 
While certain States in 1914 and 1915 stated that they 
would observe the principles of the Declaration of London, 
.their practice was not always in strict conformity with 
its provisions. The declaration furnishes a standard to 
which some of these practices may be referred. Upon 
the following pages such comparisons are made. 

DECLARATION OF LONDON, 1909. 
Declaration Concerning the Laws of Naval War. 

His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia; the President of 
the United States of America; His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, 
King of Bohemia, &c, and Apostolic King of Hungary; His Majesty 
the King of Spain: the President of the French Republic; His Majesty 
the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of 
the British Dominions beyond the Seas. Emperor of India; His Majesty 
the King of Italy; His Majesty the Emperor of Japan; Her Majesty the 
Queen of the Netherlands; His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias. 

Considering the invitation which the British Government has given 
to various powers to meet in conference in order to determine together 
as to what are the generally recognized rules of international law 
within the meaning of article 7 of the Convention of 18th October, 1907, 
relative to the Establishment of an International Prize Court; 

Recognizing all the advantages which in the unfortunate event of a 
naval war, an agreement as to the said rules would present, both as re- 

1 Sametotheemba--ie-at St. Petersburg, Vienna, and Paris, and the legation at Brus- 
sels 



BLOCKADE. 101 

gards peaceful commerce, and as regards the belligerents and as regards 
their political relations with neutral governments; 

Considering that the general principles of international law are often 
in their practical application the subject of divergent procedure; 

Animated by the desire to insure henceforward a greater uniformity 
in this respect; 

Hoping that a work so important to the common welfare will meet 
with general approval; 

Have appointed as their plenipotentiaries, that is to say: 

[Names of plenipotentiaries.] 

Who, after having communicated their full powers, found in good and 
due form, have agreed to make the present declaration: 

PRELIMINARY PROVISION. 

The signatory powers are agreed in declaring that the rules contained 
in the following chapters correspond in substance with the generally 
recognized principles of international law. 

Chapter I. — Blockade in time of war} 

Article 1. A blockade must be limited to the ports and coasts belong- 
ing to or occupied by the enemy. 

1 Great Britain followed this rule in certain African blockades: 

Notice of declaration of blockade of the coast of German East Africa. 

Foreign Office, Feb. 2?>, 1915. 
His Majesty's Government have decided to declare a blockade of the coast of German 
East Africa as from midnight, February 28-March 1. The blockade will extend along 
the whole coast, including the islands, i. e., from latitude 4° 41' south to latitude 10° 40' 
south. 

Four days' grace from the time of the commencement of the blockade will be given for 
the departure of neutral vessels from the blockaded area. (London Gazette, Feb. 26, 
1915.) 

Notice of declaration of blockade of the coast of the Cameroons. 

Foreign Office, Apr. 24, 1915. 

His Majesty's Government have decided to declare a blockade of the coast of the 
Cameroons as from midnight April 23-24. The blockade will extend from the entrance 
of the Akwayafe River to Bimbia Creek, and from the Benge mouth of the Sanaga River 
to Campo. 

Forty-eight hours' grace from the time of the commencement of the blockade will be 
given for the departure of neutral vessels from the blockaded area. (London Gazette, 
Apr. 27, 1915.) 

The British provisions for the blockade in the Eastern Mediterranean were as follows: 

Notice of declaration of blockade of the coast of Asia Minor, including entrance to Dardanelles . 

Foreign Office, June 1, 1915. 
His Majesty's Government have decided to declare a olockade of the coast of Asia 
Minor, commencing at noon on June 2. The area of the blockade will extend from lati- 
tude 37° 35' N. to latitude 40° 5' N., and will include the entrance to the Dardanelles. 
Seventy-two hours' grace from the moment of the commencement of the blockade will 
be given for the departure of neutral vessels from the blockade! area. ( London Gazette 
June 4, 1915.) 



102 DECLARATION OF LONDON. 

Art. 2. In accordance with the Declaration of Paris of 1856, a block- 
ade, in order to be binding, must be effective — that is to say, it must be 
maintained by a force sufficient really to prevent access to the enemy 
coast . 

Art. 3. The question whether a blockade is effective is a question 
of fact . 

Art. 1. A blockade is not regarded as raised if the blockading forces 
are temporarily driven off by bad weather. 

Art. 5. A blockade must be applied impartially to the ships of all 
nations. 

Art. 6. The commander of a blockading force may grant to a warship 
permission to enter, and subsequently to leave, a blockaded port. 

Art. 7. In circumstances of distress, ackowledged by an authority 
of the blockading forces, a neutral vessel may enter a place under block- 
ade and subsequently leave it, provided that she has neither discharged 
nor shipped any cargo there. 

Art. 8. A blockade, in order to be binding, must be declared in 
accordance with article 9, and notified in accordance with articles 11 
and 16. 

Art. 9. A declaration of blockade is made either by the blockading 
power or by the naval authorities acting in its name. 

It specifies — 

(1) The date when the blockade begins; 

(2) The geographical limits of the coast blockaded; 

(3) The delay to be allowed to neutral vessels for departure. 
Art. 10. If the blockading power, or the naval authorities acting 

in its name, do not establish the blockade in conformity with the pro- 
visions, which, in accordance with article 9 (1) and (2), must be in- 
serted in the declaration of blockade, the declaration is void, and a 
new declaration is necessary in order to make the blockade operative. 
Art. 11. A declaration 'of blockade is notified — 

(1) To the neutral powers, by the blockading power by means of a 
communication addressed to the Governments themselves, or to their 
representatives accredited to it; 

(2) To the local authorities, by the officer commanding the blockad- 
ing force. These authorities will, on their part, inform, as soon as pos- 
sible, the foreign consuls who exercise their functions in the port or on 
the coast blockaded. 

Art. 12. The rules relative to the declaration and to the notifica- 
tion of blockade are applicable in the case in which the blockade may 
have been extended, or may have been reestablished after having 
been raised. 

Art. 13. The voluntary raising of a blockade, as also any limitation 
which may be introduced, must be notified in the manner prescribed 
by article 11. 

Art. 14. The liability of a neutral vessel to capture for breach of 
blockade is contingent on her knowledge, actual or presumptive, of the 
blockade. 



CONTRABAND. 103 

Art. 15. Failing proof to the contrary, knowledge of the blockade 
is presumed if the vessel left a neutral port subsequently to the notifi- 
cation of the blockade made in sufficient time to the power to which 
such port belongs. 

Art. 16. If a vessel which approaches a blockaded port does not 
know or can not be presumed to know of the blockade, the notification 
must be made to the vessel itself by an officer of one of the ships of the 
blockading force. This notification must be entered in the vessel's 
log book, with entry of the day and hour, as also of the geographical 
position of the vessel at the time. 

A neutral vessel which leaves a blockaded port must be allowed to 
pass free if, through the negligence of the officer commanding the 
blockading force, no declaration of blockade has been notified to the 
local authorities, or if, in the declaration, as notified, no delay has 
been indicated. 1 

Art. 17. The seizure of neutral vessels for violation of blockade may 
be made only within the radius of action of the ships of war assigned 
to maintain an effective blockade. 

Art. 18. The blockading forces must not bar access to the ports or 
to the coasts of neutrals. 

Art. 19. Whatever may be the ulterior destination of the vessel or 
of her cargo, the evidence of violation of blockade is not sufficiently 
conclusive to authorize the seizure of the vessel if she is at the time 
bound toward an unblockaded port. 

Art. 20. A vessel which in violation of blockade has left a block- 
aded port or has attempted to enter the port is liable to capture so long 
as she is pursued by a ship of the blockading force. If the pursuit is 
abandoned, or if the blockade is raised, her capture can no longer be 
effected. 

Art. 21. A vessel found guilty of violation of blockade is liable to 
condemnation. The cargo is also liable to condemnation, unless it is 
proved that at the time the goods were shipped the shipper neither 
knew nor could have known of the intention to violate the blockade. 

Chapter II. — Contraband of war . 2 

Art. 22. The following articles and materials are, without notice, 
regarded as contraband, under the name of absolute contraband: 

(1) Arms of all kinds, including arms for sporting purposes, and 
their unassembled distinctive parts. 

(2) Projectiles, charges, and cartridges of all kinds, and their unas- 
sembled distinctive parts. 

(3) Powder and explosives specially adapted for use in war. 

(4) Gun carriages, caissons, limbers, military wagons, field forges, 
and their unassembled distinctive parts. 

(5) Clothing and equipment of a distinctive military character. 



1 See 3 and 4, Italian Regulations, July 15, 1915, on p. 115. 

2 The lists of articles declared contraband of war since July, 1914, have varied and 
have become increasingly comprehensive. The addition of an article to a list by one 
belligerent has usually been followed by the addition of a similar category by an oppo- 



104 DECLARATION OF LONDON. 

(6) All kinds of harness of a distinctively military character. 
Saddle, draft, and pack animals suitable for use in war. 

(8) Articles of camp equipment and their unassembled distinctive 
parts. 

(9) Armor plat 

(10) Warships and boats and their unassembled parts specially dis- 
tinctive as suitable for use only in a vessel of war. 

(11) Implements and apparatus made exclusively for the manufac- 
ture of munitions of war. for the manufacture or repair of arms or of 
military material, for use on land or sea. 

Art. 23. Articles and materials which are exclusively used for war 
may be added to the list of absolute contraband by means of a notified 
declaration. 

The notification is addressed to the Governments of other powers, or to 
their representatives accredited to the power which makes the declara- 
tion. A notification made after the opening of hostilities is addressed 
only to neutral powers. 

Art. 24. The following articles and materials susceptible of use in 
war as well as for purposes of peace are, without notice, regarded as con- 
traband of war, under the name of conditional contraband: 

(1) Food. 
_ Forage and grain suitable for feeding animals. 

nent. The lists of contraband of allied powers have ordinarily been made to coincide. 
In some instances explanations as to the meaning of certain terms have been issued. 

The British list of contraband, as revised to October 14, 1915, is given below. A noti- 
fication published by the French Government on the same date establishes the same 
list of articles to be considered contraband. 

B\ The King. 

A PROCLAMATION. 

sing the list of articles to be treated as contraband of uar. 

George R. I. 

Whereas on the 23d day of December, 1914, we did issue our royal proclamation speci- 
fying the articles which it was our intention to treat as contraband during the con- 
tinuance of hostilities or until we did give further public notice; and 

Whereas on the Uth day of March, and on the 27th day of May, and on the 20th day of 
August, lib"), we did, by our royal proclamations of those date-, make certain addi- 
tions to the lists of articles to be treated as contraband of war: and 

Whereas ciicnl to matte certain further additions to and amendments in the 

said li 

Now. therefore, we do hereby declare, by and with the advice of our privy council, 
the lists of contraband contained in the schedules to our royal proclamation of 
the 2Cd day of December, as subse |uently amended by our proclamations of the 11th 
day of March, and of the 27th day of May, and of the 2Uth day of August aforementioned, 
are hereby withdrawn, and that in lieu thereof, during the continuance of the war or 
until we do give further public notice, the articles enumerated in Schedule I hereto 
will be treated as absolute contraband, and the articles enumerated in Schedule II 
hereto will be treated as conditional contra' and. 

! I. 

1. Arms of all kinds, including arms for sporting purposes, and their component parts. 

implements and apparatus designed exclusively for the manufacture of munitions 

of war or for the manufacture or repair of arms or of war material for use on land or sea. 

:j. Lathes and other machines or machine tools capable of being employed in the 
manufacture cf munitions of war. 



LISTS OF CONTRABAND. 105 

(3) Clothing and fabrics for clothing, boots and shoes, suitable for 
military use. 

(4) Gold and silver in coin or bullion; paper money. 

(5) Vehicles of all kinds available for use in war, and their unassem- 
bled parts. 

(6) Vessels, craft, and boats of all kinds, floating docks, parts of docks, 
as also their unassembled parts. 

(7) Fixed railway material and rolling stock, and material for tele- 
graphs, radio telegraphs, and telephones. 

(8) Balloons and flying machines and their unassembled distinctive 
parts, as also their accessories, articles and materials distinctive as in- 
tended for use in connection with balloons or flying machines. 

(9) Fuel; lubricants. 

(10) Powder and explosives which are not specially adapted for use in 
war. 

(11) Barbed wire, as also the implements for placing and cutting the 
same. 

(12) Horseshoes and horseshoeing materials. 

(13) Harness and saddlery material. 

(14) Binocular glasses, telescopes, chronometers, and all kinds of 
nautical instruments. 

Art. 25. Articles and materials susceptible of use in war as well as 
for purposes of peace, and other than those enumerated in articles 22 



4. Emery, corundum, natural and artificial (alundum), and carborundum, in all 
forms. 

5. Projectiles, charges, and cartridges of all kinds, and their component parts. 
G. Paraffin wax. 

7. Powder and ex-plosives specially prepared for use in war. 

8. Materials used in the manufacture of explosives, including: Nitric acid and nitrates 
of all kinds; sulphuric acid; fuming sulphuric acid (oleum); acetic acid and acetates; 
barium chlorate and perchlorate; calcium acetate, nitrate and carbide; potassium salts 
and caustic potash; ammonium salts and ammonia liquor; caustic soda, sodium chlorate 
and perchlorate; mercury; benzol, toluol, xylol, solvent naphtha, phenol (carbolic acid), 
cresol, naphthalene, and their mixtures and derivatives: aniline, and its derivatives; 
glycerine; acetone; acetic ether; ethyl alcohol; methyl alcohol; ether; sulphur; urea; 
cyanamide; celluloid. 

9. Manganese dioxide: hydrochloric acid; bromine; phosphorus: carbon disulphide; 
arsenic and its compounds; chlorine: phosgene (carbonyl chloride): sulphur dioxide; 
prussiate of soda; sodium cyanide; iodine and its compound.-. 

10. Capsicum and pepper^. 

11. Gun mountings, limberboxes, limbers, military wagons, field forges, and their 
component parts; articles of camp equipment and their component parts. 

12. Barbed wire and the implements for fixing and cutting the same. 

13. Range-finders and their component parts; searchlights and their component parts. 

14. Clothing and equipment of a distinctively military character. 

15. Saddle, draft, and pack animals suitable, or which may become suitable, for use 
in war. 

16. All kinds of harness of a distinctively military character. 

17. Hides of cattle, buffaloes, and horses; skins of calves, pigs, sheep, goats, and deer; 
and leather, undressed or dressed, suitable for saddlery, harness, military boots, or mili- 
tary clothing; leather belting, hydraulic leather, and pump leather. 

18. Tanning substances of all kinds, including quebracho wood and extracts for use 
in tanning. 

19. Wool, raw, combed or carded; wool waste; wool tops and noiis; woolen or worsted 
yarns; animal hair of all kinds, and tops, noils and yarns of animal hair. 



100 DECLARATION OF LONDON. 

and 24, may be added to the list of conditional contraband by means of 
a declaration, which must be notified in the manner provided for in the 
second paragraph of article 23. 

Art. 26. If a Power waives, so far as it is concerned, the right to 
regard as contraband of war articles and materials which are comprised 
in any of the classes enumerated in articles 22 and 24, it shall make 
known its intention by a declaration notified in the manner provided 
for in the second paragraph of article 23. 

Art. 27. Articles and materials which are not susceptible of use in 
war are not to be declared contraband of war. 

Art. 28. The following are not to be declared contraband of war: 

(1) Raw cotton, wool, silk, jute, flax, hemp, and other raw materials 
of the textile industries, and also yarns of the same. 

(2) Nuts and oil seeds; copra. 

(3) Rubber, resins, gums, and lacs; hops. 

(4) Rawhides, horns, bones, and ivory. 

(5) Natural and artificial manures, including nitrates and phosphates 
for agricultural purposes. 

(6) Metallic ores. 

(7) Earths, clays, lime, chalk, stone, including marble, bricks, slates, 
and tiles. 

(8) Chinaware and glass. 

(9) Paper and materials prepared for its manufacture. 

(10) Soap, paint, and colors, including articles exclusively used in 
their manufacture, and varnishes. 

2<). Raw cotton, linters. cotton waste, cotton yarns, cotton piece goods, and other cot- 
ton products capable of being used in the manufacture of explosives. 

21. Flax; hemp; ramie; kapok. 

22. Warships, including boats and their component parts of such a nature that they 
can only be used on a vessel of war. 

23. Submarine sound-signaling apparatus. 

24. Armor plates. 

25. Aircraft of all kinds, including aeroplanes, airships, balloons and their component 
parts, together with accessories and articles suitable for use in connection with aircraft. 

26. Motor vehicles of all kinds and their component parts. 

27. Tires for motor vehicles and for cycles, together with articles or materials especially 
adapted for use in the manufacture or repair of tires. 

2S. Mineral oils, including benzine and motor spirit. 

29. Resinous products, camphor and turpentine (oil and spirit): wood tar and wood- 
tar oil. 

30. Rubber (including raw, waste, and reclaimed rubber, solutions and jellies contain- 
ing rubber, or any other preparations containing rubber, balata, and gutta-percha, and 
the following varieties of rubber viz, Borneo, Guayule, Jelutong, Palembang, Tontianae, 
and all other substances containing caoutchouc), and goods made wholly or partly of 
rubber. 

31. Rattans. 

32. Lubricants. 

33. The following metals: Tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, sodium, nickel, selen- 
ium, cobalt, haematite pig iron, manganese, electrolytic iron, and steel containing tung- 
sten or molybdenum. 

34. Asbestos. 

35. Aluminum, alumina, and salts of aluminium. 

36. Antimony, together with the sulphides and oxides of antimony. 

37. Copper, unwrought and part wrought; copper wire; alloys and compounds of 
copper. 



LISTS OF CONTRABAND. 107 

(11) Bleaching powder, soda ash, caustic soda, salt cake, ammonia, 
sulphate of ammonia, and sulphate of copper. 

(12) Agricultural, mining, textile, and printing machinery. 

(13) Precious stones, semiprecious stones, pearls, mother-of-pearl, 
and coral. 

(14) Clocks and watches, other than chronometers. 

(15) Fashion and fancy goods. 

(16) Feathers of all kinds, hairs, and bristles. 

(17) Articles of household furniture and decoration;, office furniture 
and accessories. 

Art. 29. Neither are the following to be regarded as contraband of 
war: 

(1) Articles and materials serving exclusively for the care of the sick 
and wounded. They may, nevertheless, in case of urgent military 
necessity and subject to the payment of compensation, be requisitioned, 
if their destination is that specified in article 30. 

(2) Articles and materials intended for the use of the vessel in which 
they are found, as well as those for the use of her crew and passengers 
during the voyage. 

38. Lead, pig, sheet, or pipe. 

39. Tin, chloride of tin, and tin ore. 

40. Ferro alloys, including ferrotungsten, ferro molybdenum, f err o manganese, ferro- 
vanadium, and ferrochrome. 

41. The following ores: Wolframite, scheelite, molybdenite, manganese ore, nickel ore, 
chrome ore, haematite iron ore, iron pyrites, copper pyrites, and other copper ores, zinc 
ore, lead ore, arsenical ore, and bauxite. 

42. Maps and plans of any place within the territory of any belligerent, or within the 
area of military operations, on a scale of 4 miles to 1 inch or any larger scale, and repro- 
ductions on any scale, by photography or otherwise, of such maps or plans. 

SCHEDULE U. 1 

1. Foodstuffs. 

2. Forage and feeding stuffs for animals. 

3. Oleaginous seeds, nuts, and kernels. 

4. Animal, fish, and vegetable oils and fats, other than those capable of use as lubri- 
cants, and not including essential oils. 

5. Fuel, other than mineral oils. 

6. Powder and explosives not specially prepared for use in war. 

7. Horseshoes and shoeing materials. 

8. Harness and saddlery. 

9. The following articles, if suitable for use in war: Clothing, fabrics for clothing, skins 
and furs utilizable for clothing, boots, and shoes. 

10. Vehicles of all kinds, other than motor vehicles, available for use in war, and their 
component parts. 

11. Railway materials, both fixed and rollng stock, and materials for telegraphs, wire- 
less telegraphs, and telephones. 

12. Vessels, craft, and boats of all kinds; floating docks and their component parts; 
parts of docks. 

13. Field glasses, telescopes, chronometers, and all kinds of nautical instruments. 

14. Gold and silver in coin or bullion; paper money. 

Given at our court at Buckingham Palace, this 14th day of October, in the year of our 
Lord 1915, and in the sixth year of our reign. 
God save the King. 
(London Gazette, Fourth Supplement, Oct. 12, 1915.) 

1 When this book was in page proof on April 13, 1916, the British Government an- 
nounced "the distinction between e two classes of contraband has ceased to have 
any value." 



10S DECLARATION OF LONDON. 

Art. 30. Absolute contraband is liable to capture if it is shown to 
be destined to territory belonging to or occupied by the enemy, or to the 
armed forces of the enemy. It is immaterial whether the carriage of 
the goods is direct or entails either transshipment or transport over land. 

Art. 31. Proof of the destination specified in article 30 is complete 
in the following cases: 

(1) When the goods are documented to be discharged in a port of the 
enemy, or to be delivered to its armed forces. 

When the vessel is to call at enemy ports only, or when she is to 
touch at a port of the enemy or to join its armed forces, before arriving 
at the neutral port for which the goods are documented. 

Art. 32. The ship's papers are complete proof of the voyage of a 
vessel transporting absolute contraband, unless the vessel is encoun- 
tered having manifestly deviated from the route which she ought to 
follow according to the ship's papers and being unable to justify by 
sufficient reason such deviation. 1 

Art. 33. Conditional contraband is liable to capture if it is shown 
that it is destined for the use of the armed forces or of a government 
department of the enemy State, unless in this latter case the circum- 
stances show that the articles cannot in fact be used for the purposes of 
the war in progress. This latter exception does not apply to a con- 
signment coming under article 24 (4). 

Art. 34. There is presumption of the destination referred to in 
article 33 if the consignment is addressed to enemy authorities, or to a 

1 The Italian royal decree of June 3, 1915, was substantially identical with the British 
order in council, October 29, 1914; the French decree, August 25. 1914, and the Russian 
Ukase, December 8-21, 1914, and was as follows: 

Article I. — During the present state of war the Government of the King will adopt 
and enforce the dispositions of the declaration signed at London on February 26, 1909, 
with the exception of articles 22, 24, and 2S, and of any modifications contained in the 
following articles: 

Art. II. — A neutral ship, which according to her papers has a neutral destination, and 
which in spite of the destination indicated on her papers is making an enemy port, will 
be subject to capture and confiscation if she is encountered before the end of her return 
journey. 

Art. III. — The destination indicated in article 33 of the Declaration of London will be 
presumed to be the real one (in addition to the presumptions provided for in article 34) 
if the cargo is consigned to an agent of an enemy State or to order of an agent of an enemy 
State. 

Art. IV.— In spite of the dispositions of article 35 of the Declaration of London, condi- 
tional contraband will be subject to capture on board a vessel proceeding to a neutral port 
if the ship's manifests do not indicate the name of the consignee, or if they show that the 
consignee resides in territory belonging to or occupied by the enemy. 

Art. V. — In the cases indicated in the preceding Article IV the burden of proving the 
innocent destination of the goods rests with their owner. 

Art. VL— "When the King's Government learns that an enemy Government is supply- 
ing its armed forces by means of or across a neutral country, the ministers of foreign affairs 
and marine may take concerted action to exclude from the operation of article 35 of the 
Declaration of London all vessels proceeding to ports in such countries. 

Decisions of this nature will be published in the Official Gazette, and will be enforced 
until superseded by another decision of the same nature. 

For the whole period during which such decisions are in force, vessels carrying condi- 
tional contraband to ports of such countries will be liable to capture. 

(See also 5 and 6, Italian Regulations, July 15, 1915, p. 115.) 



TREATMENT OF CONTRABAND. 109 

merchant established in the enemy country, and when it is well known 
that this merchant supplies articles and materials of this kind to the 
enemy. The presumption is the same if the consignment is destined to 
a fortified place of the enemy, or to another place serving as a base for the 
armed forces of the enemy; this presumption, however, does not apply 
to the merchant vessel herself bound for one of these places and of which 
vessel it is sought to show the contraband character. 

Failing the above presumptions, the destination is presumed 
innocent. 

The presumptions laid down in this article admit proof to the 
contrary. 

Art. 35. Conditional contraband is not liable to capture, except 
when on board a vessel bound for territory belonging to or occupied by 
the enemy, or for the armed forces of the enemy, and when it is not to 
be discharged at an intervening neutral port. 

The ship 's papers are conclusive proof of the voyage of the vessel as 
also of the port of discharge of the goods, unless the vessel is encountered 
having manifestly deviated from the route which she ought to follow 
according to the ship's papers and being unable to justify by sufficient 
reason such deviation. 

Art. 36. Notwithstanding the provisions of article 35, if the territory 
of the enemy has no seaboard, conditional contraband is liable to 
capture if it is shown that it has the destination referred to in article 33. 

Art. 37. A vessel carrying articles liable to capture as absolute or 
conditional contraband may be captured on the high seas or in the 
territorial waters of the belligerents throughout the whole course of her 
voyage, even if she has the intention to touch at a port of call before 
reaching the hostile destination. 

Art. 38. A capture is not to be made on the ground of a carriage 
of contraband previously accomplished and at the time completed. 

Art. 39. Contraband is liable to condemnation. 

Art. 40. The confiscation of the vessel carrying contraband is 
allowed if the contraband forms, either by value, by weight, by volume, 
or by freight, more than half the cargo. 

Art. 41. If a vessel carrying contraband is released, the expenses 
incurred by the captor in the trial before the national prize court as also 
for the preservation and custody of the ship and cargo during the pro- 
ceedings are chargeable against the ship. 

Art. 42. Goods which belong to the owner of the contraband and 
which are on board the same vessel are liable to condemnation. 

Art. 43. If a vessel is encountered at sea making a voyage in igno- 
rance of the hostilities or of the declaration of contraband affecting her 
cargo, the contraband is not to be condemned except with indemity; 
the vessel herself and the remainder of the cargo are exempt from con- 
demnation and from the expenses referred to in article 41. The case is 
the same if the master after becoming aware of the opening of hostilities, 
or of the declaration of contraband, has not yet been able to discharge 
the contraband. 



110 DECLARATION OF LONDON. 

A vessel is deemed to be aware of the state of war, or of the declaration 
of contraband, if she left a neutral port after there had been made in 
sufficient time the notification of the opening of hostilities, or of the 
declaration of contraband, to the power to which such port belongs. 
A vessel is also deemed to be aware of a state of war if she left an enemy- 
port after the opening of hostilities. 

Art. 44. A vessel stopped because carrying contraband, and not 
liable to condemnation on account of the proportion of contraband, 
may, according to circumstances, be allowed to continue her voyage if 
the master is ready to deliver the contraband to the belligerent ship. 

The delivery of the contraband is to be entered by the captor on the 
logbook of the vessel stopped, and the master of the vessel must furnish 
the captor duly certified copies of all relevant papers. 

The captor is at liberty to- destroy the contraband which is thus 
delivered to him. 1 

Chapter III. — Unneutral service. 2 

Art. 45. A neutral vessel is liable to be condemned and, in a gen- 
eral way, is liable to the same treatment which a neutral vessel would 
undergo when liable to condemnation on account of contraband of war: 

(1) If she is making a voyage especially with a view to the transport 
of individual passengers who are embodied in the armed force of the 
enemy, or with a view to the transmission of information in the interest 
of the enemy. 

(2) If, with the knowledge of the owner, of the one who charters the 
vessel entire, or of the master, she is transporting a military detachment 
of the enemy, or one or more persons who, during the voyage, lend 
direct assistance to the operations of the enemy. 

In the cases specified in the preceding paragraphs (1) and (2), goods 
belonging to the owner of the vessel are likewise liable to condemnation. 

The provisions of the present article do not apply if when the vessel 
is encountered at sea she is unaware of the opening of hostilities, or if 
the master, after becoming aware of the opening of hostilities, has not 
been able to disembark the passengers. The vessel is deemed to know 
of the state of war if she left an enemy port after the opening of hostili- 
ties, or a neutral port after there had been made in sufficient time a 
notification of the opening of hostilities to the power to which such 
port belongs. 

Art. 46. A neutral vessel is liable to be condemned and, in a gen- 
eral way, is liable to the same treatment which she would undergo if 
she were a merchant vessel of the enemy: 

(1) If she takes a direct part in the hostilities. 

(2) If she is under the orders or under the control of an agent placed 
on board by the enemy Government. 

(3) If she is chartered entire by the enemy Government. 

1 See 6 Italian Regulations, July 15, 1915, p. 115. 

2 See 7 and 8 Italian Regulations, July 15, 1915, p. 116. 



DESTRUCTION OF PRIZE. Ill 

(4) If she is at the time and exclusively either devoted to the trans- 
port of enemy troops or to the transmission of information in the interest 
of the enemy. 

In the cases specified in the present article, the goods belonging to 
the owner of the vessel are likewise liable to condemnation. 

Art. 47. Any individual embodied in the armed force of the enemy, 
and who is found on board a neutral merchant vessel, may be made a 
prisoner of war, even though there be no ground for the capture of the 
vessel. 

Chapter IV. — Destruction of neutral prizes. 1 

Art. 48. A captured neutral vessel is not to be destroyed by the 
captor, but must be taken into such port as is proper in order to deter- 
mine there the rights as regards the validity of the capture. 

Art. 49. As an exception, a neutral vessel captured by a belligerent 
ship, and which would be liable to condemnation, may be destroyed if 
the observance of article 48 would involve danger to the ship of war or 
to the success of the operations in which she is at the time engaged. 

Art. 50. Before the destruction . the persons on board must be placed 
in safety, and all the ship's papers and other documents which those 
interested consider relevant for the decision as to the validity of the cap- 
ture must be taken on board the ship of war. 

Art. 51. A captor who has destroyed a neutral vessel must, as a con- 
dition precedent to any decision upon the validity of the capture, estab- 
lish in fact that he only acted in the face of an exceptional necessity 
such as is contemplated in article 49. Failing to do this, he must com- 
pensate the parties interested without examination as to whether or 
not the capture was valid. 

Art. 52. If the capture of a neutral vessel, of which the destruction 
has been justified, is subsequently held to be invalid, the captor must 
compensate those interested, in place of the restitution to which they 
would have been entitled. 

Art. 53. If neutral goods which were not liable to condemnation 
have been destroyed with the vessel, the owner of such goods is entitled 
to compensation. 

Art. 54. The captor has the right to require the giving up of, or to 
proceed to destroy, goods liable to condemnation found on board a 
vessel which herself is not liable to condemnation, provided that the 
circumstances are such as, according to article 49, justify the destruc- 
tion of a vessel liable to condemnation. The captor enters the goods 
delivered or destroyed in the logbook of the Aessel stopped, and must 
procure from the master duly certified copies of all relevant papers. 
"When the giving up or destruction has been completed, and the 
formalities have been fulfilled, the master must be allowed to continue 
his voyage. 

The provisions of articles 51 and 52 respecting the obligations of a 
captor who has destroyed a neutral vessel are applicable. 

i See 12 Italian Regulations, July 15, 1915, p. 116. 



112 DECLARATION OF LONDON. 

Chapter V. — Transfer of flag . l 

Art. 55. The transfer of an enemy vessel to a neutral flag, effected 
before the opening of hostilities, is valid, unless it is proved that such, 
transfer was made in order to evade the consequences which the enemy 
character of the vessel would involve. There is, however, a presump- 
tion that the transfer is void if the bill of sale is not on board in case the 
vessel has lost her belligerent nationality less than sixty days before 
the opening of hostilities. Proof to the contrary is admitted. 

There is absolute presumption of the validity of a transfer effected 
more than thirty days before the opening of hostilities if it is absolute. 
complete, conforms to the laws of the countries concerned, and if its 
effect is such that the control of the vessel and the profits of her em- 
ployment do not remain in the same hands as before the transfer. If, 
however, the vessel lost her belligerent nationality less than sixty days 
before the opening of hostilities, and if the bill of sale is not on board, the 
capture of the vessel would not give a right to compensation. 

Art. 56. The transfer of an enemy vessel to a neutral flag, effected 
after the opening of hostilities, is vo"d unless it is proved that such 
transfer was not made in order to evade the consequences which the 
enemy character of the vessel would involve. 

There is, however, absolute presumption that a transfer is void: 

(1) If the transfer has been made during a voyage or in a blockaded 
port. 

(2) If there is a right of redemption or of reversion. 

(3) If the requirements upon which the right to fly the flag depends 
according to the laws of the country of the flag hoisted have not been 
observed. 

Chapter VI. — Enemy character. 



»> 



Art. 57. Subject to the provisions respecting the transfer of fla 
the neutral or enemy character of a vessel is determined by the flag 
which she has the right to fly. 2 

i See 2 (g) Italian Regulations, July 15, 1915, p. 115. 
2 File No. 763.72112/1803.] 

Ambassador W. H. Page to the Secretary of State. 

[Telegram.] 

American Embassy, London, October 28, 1915. 

Following is text of order in council, dated October 20, 1915: 

"Whereas by the Declaration of London, order in council, No. 2, 1914, His Majesty 
was pleased to declare that during the present hostilities the provisions of the said 
Declaration of London should, subject to certain exceptions and modifications therein 
specified, be adopted and put in force by His Majesty's Government; and 

" Whereas by article 57 ol the said declaration, it is provided that the neutral or enemy 
character of a vessel is determined by the flag which she is entitled to fly; and 

"Whereas it is no longer expedient to adopt the said article: 

'• Now, therefore, His Majesty, by and with the advice of his privy council, is pleased 
to order, and it is hereby ordered, that from and after this date article 57 of the Declara- 
tion of London shall cease to be adopted and put in force. 

"In lieu of the said article, British prize courts shall apply the rules and principles 
formerly observed in such courts. 

"This order may be cited as 'The Declaration of London order in council, 1915.' 



ENEMY CHARACTER, CONVOY. 113 

The case in which a neutral vessel is engaged in a trade which is 
reserved in time of peace remains outside the scope of, and is in no 
wise affected by. this rule. 

Art. 58. The neutral or enemy character of goods found on board an 
enemy vessel is determined by the neutral or enemy character of the 
owner. 

Art. 59. If the neutral character of goods found on board an enemy 
vessel is not proven, they are presumed to be enemy goods. 

Art. 60. The enemy character of goods on board an enemy vessel 
continues until they reach their destination, notwithstanding an inter- 
vening transfer after the opening of hostilities while the goods are being 
forwarded . 

If, however, prior to the capture, a former neutral owner exercises, on 
the bankruptcy of a present enemy owner, a legal right to recover the 
goods, they regain their neutral character. 

Chapter VII. — Convoy. 1 

Art. 61 . Neutral vessels under convoy of their national flag are 
exempt from search. The commander of a convoy gives, in writing, 
at the request of the commander of a belligerent ship of war, all infor- 
mation as to the character of the vessels and their cargoes, which 
could be obtained by visit and search. 

Art. 62. If the commander of the belligerent ship of war has reason 
to suspect that the confidence of the commander of the convoy has 
been abused, he communicates his suspicions to him. In such a case 
it is for the commander of the convoy alone to conduct an investiga- 
tion. He must state the result of such investigation in a report, of 
which a copy is furnished to the officer of the ship of war. If, in the 

"And the lords commissioners of His Majesty's treasury, the lords commissioners of the 
admiralty, and each of His Majesty's principal secretaries of state, the president of the 
probate, divorce, and admiralty division of the high court of justice, all other judges 
of J3is Majesty's prize courts, and all governors, officers, and authorities whom it may 
concern, are to give the necessary directions herein as to them may respectively apper- 
tain." 

Page. 

File Xo. 763.72112 1S05.] 

Ambassador Sharp to the Secretary of Stat< . 
[Telegram.] 

American Embassy, Paris, October 26, 1915. 
Following decree published in Journal Officiel to-day: 

••Article 1. The provisions of article 57, paragraph 1, of the Declaration signed at 
London, February 26, 1909, relating to naval warfare, shall be applied during the present 
war, with the following modification to it whenever it is established that a ship flying 
an enemy flag belongs in fact to the nationals of a neutral or an allied country, or con- 
versely that a ship flying a neutral or allied flag belongs in fact to nationals of an enemy 
country, or to parties residing in an enemy country, the ship shall accordingly be con- 
sidered neutral, allied, or enemy. 

"Article 2. The president of the council, minister for foreign affairs, and the minister 
of marine, each in his province, are charged with the execution of this decree.'' 

Sharp. 
1 See 10 Italian Regulations, July 15, 1915, p. 110. 
23057—16 8 



114 DECLARATION OF LONDON. 

opinion of the commander of the convoy, the facts thus stated justify 
the capture of one or more vessels, the protection of the convoy must 
be withdrawn from such vessels. 

(ha pt e r V 1 1 1 . — Resistance to search . 

Art. 63. Forcible resistance to the legitimate exercise of the right 
of stoppage, visit and search, and capture, involves in all cases the 
condemnation of the vessel. The cargo is liable to the same treat- 
ment which the cargo of an enemy vessel would undergo. Goods 
belonging to the master or owner of the vessel are regarded as enemy 
goods. 

Chapter IX. — Compensation. 

Art. 64. If the capture of a vessel or of goods is not upheld by the 
prize court, or if without being brought to judgment the captured 
vessel is released, those interested have the right to compensation, 
unless there were sufficient reasons for capturing the vessel or goods. 

FINAL PROVISIONS. 

Art. 65. The provisions of the present declaration form an indivisible 
whole. 

Art. 66. The signatory powers undertake to secure the reciprocal 
observance of the rules contained in this declaration in case of a war 
in which the belligerents are all parties to this declaration. They 
will therefore issue the necessary instructions to their authorities and 
to their armed forces, and will take the measures which are proper in 
order to guarantee the application of the declaration by their courts 
and more particularly by their prize courts. 1 

Art. 67. The present declaration shall be ratified as soon as possible. 

The ratifications shall be deposited in London. 

1 The Italian decree of July 15, 1915, furnishes an example of recent regulations. 

ITALIAN" NAVAL PRIZE REGULATIONS. 

(Approved by decree of July 15, 1915.) 
(Translation.) 

1. In execution of the royal de Tee of the 16th May, 1915, suspending the application 
of article 211 of the Mercantile Marine Code during the present conflict, the capture of 
enemy merchant ships is authorized in every case, with the following exceptions: 

(a) Sailing boats adapte 1 exclusively to shoal-water fishing, or to short local services 
within 3 miles of the enemy coast, provided they do not exceed 5 tons displacement, 
nor violate special provisions issue:l by the military authorities concerning fishing and 
n irrigation. 

(6) Shi; is exclusively employed for religious, scientific or philanthropic purposes, hos- 
pital ships fitted out by private persons or charitable societies expressly recognize 1 as 
such by the Royal Government in accordance with special instructions issue 1 to naval 
comman ling officers. 

Cargoes which are enemy property in boats specifiel unler (a) are exempt from seques- 
tration, provide I they do not include contraband of war: cargoes which are enemy 
property are equally exempt on board ships specified un ler (6) when connecte 1 with 
the minion on which the ship is engage I. 



FINAL PROVISIONS. 115 

The first deposit of ratifications shall be recorded in a protocol 
signed by the representatives of the powers taking part therein, and 
by His Britannic Majesty's principal secretary of state for foreign 
affairs. 

The subsequent deposits of ratifications shall be made by means of 
a written notification addressed to the British Government, and ac- 
companied by the instrument of ratification. 

A duly certified copy of the protocol relating to the first deposit 
of ratifications, and of the notifications mentioned in the preceding 
paragraph as well as of the instruments of ratification which accom- 
pany them, shall be immediately sent by the British Government, 
through the diplomatic channel, to the signatory powers. The said 
Government shall, in the cases contemplated in the preceding para- 
Boats and ships included under (a) and (6) are, however, in every case subject to 
capture as well as their cargoes, being enemy property, when such ships and boats take 
any direct or indirect part in hostilities. 

2. Merchant ships, under whatever flag they may be sailing, shall be subject to capture 
in accordance with the provisions of the following articles if — 

(a) Guilty of violation of blockade; 
(6) Transporting contraband of war; 

(c) Lending assistance to the enemy; 

(d) They forcibly resist or endeavor to avoid search; 

(e) They are without ship's papers, or have on board ship's papers or manifests which 
are either falsified, altered, or insufficient so as to give rise to suspicion that they are 
concealing their real nationality or the real description or destination of the cargo; 

(/) They are going to an enemy port, while on the ship's papers a neutral destination 
is indicated; 

(g) They have been transferred from an enemy to a neutral flag subsequent to the 
outbreak of war, or not more than 30 days before that date, or not more than 60 days 
when the deed of sale by which the transfer of flag was effected is not found on board. 

3. A ship is liable to be captured for violation of blockade when it endeavors to enter 
or leave a blockaded zone without being furnished with a formal safe-conduct, or when, 
after having obtained a safe-conduct to enter or leave, it does not observe the rules laid 
down as to the route which jt must follow while navigating in the blockaded zone or 
crossing the line of blockade. 

4. If a ship is shaping its course toward a blockaded zone in ignorance of the exist- 
ence of the blockade, she shall be notified of it by one of the blockading vessels, entry 
to that effect, being made, if possible, in her log. 

Ignorance of the existence of blockade is assumed when this has been declared after 
the ship left its last port of call. 

5. Are considered as contraband of war the objects and materials included in the 
respective lists approved by decree. 

Articles of absolute and conditional contraband are seized when their destination is ter- 
ritory belonging to or occupied by the enemy, or when consigned to the enemy's forces. 

Both absolute and conditional contraband on board a ship preceding to a neutral 
port is subject to seizure when the name of the consignee does not appear on the manifest, 
or when the ultimate consignee resides in territory belonging to or occupied by the 
enemy, or when the goods are consigned to agents of any enemy Government, wherever 
established, or to third persons who are receivers of the goods on account of agents of an 
enemy Government. 

6. A ship carrying absolute or conditional contraband may be captured on the high 
sea or in belligerent territorial waters at any time during its voyage. 

If, however, contraband articles form a small part of the cargo, naval commanding 
oflicers may at their discretion take over, and, if circumstances require it, destroy the 



116 DECLARATION OF LONDON. 

graph, inform them at the same time of the date on which it received 
the notification. 

Art. 68. The present declaration shall take effect, in the case of 
the powers which were parties to the first deposit of ratifications, 
sixty days after the date of the protocol recording such deposit, and, 
in the case of the powers which shall ratify subsequently, sixty days 
after the notification of their ratification shall have been received by 
the British Government. 

Art. 69. In the event of one of the signatory powers wishing to 
denounce the present declaration, such denunciation can only be 
made to take effect at the end of a period of twelve years, beginning 
sixty days after the first deposit of ratifications, and, after that time, 

contraband goods, and after noting the fact in the ship s log may allow the vessel to 
continue her voyage. 

7. A ship shall be captured as guilty of giving assistance to the enemy if she— 
(n) Has taken direct part in hostilities. 

(6) Has been entirely chartered by an enemy Government, or has on board an agent 
of such Government in control of the ship; 

(c) Is employed exclusively for the transport of troops, or for the transmission of news 
in the enemy's interest ; 

(d) Is engaged in transporting enemy military detachments or persons who during the 
voyage may render or have lent direct assistance to the enemy's operations with the 
knowledge of the owner, charterer, or master: 

(e) Is navigating with the specific object of transporting individuals on their way to 
join the enemy s armed forces. 

8. Persons belonging to or intending to join the enemy's armed forces found on board 
a neutral vessel may be made prisoners of war, even though the ship be not subject to 
capture. 

9. To carry out the instructions contained in the preceding articles, naval command- 
ing o.Ticers. whenever it is judged useful, shall proceed to visit merchant ships on the 
high sea or in belligerent waters, or may request them to proceed to the nearest port 
to undergo visit there. 

10. Neutral vessels convoyed by a ship of war shall be exempt from visit provided 
that the commander of the convoy declares in writing the character and cargo of the 
convoyed vessel in such a manner as will enable all information to be available which 
could be obtained by exercising the right of visit. If the naval officers in command have 
reason to think that the good faith of the commanding officer of the escort has been 
imposed upon, they will communicate to him their suspicion, so that he may on his own 
account make the necessary verifications and issue a written report. 

11. The vessels or goods captured shall be brought to the nearest port in the kingdom, 
colonies, or territory occupied by Italy, or. this being impossible, to a port of an allied 
nation or occupied by the latter, or in case oi absolute necessity to a neutral port. The 
\ essels and goods shall there be placed at the disposal of the maritime and consular 
authorities as the case requires, together with a report of what has been done, accom 
panied by the respective declarations and documents. 

12. When observance of the provisions of the preceding article may endanger the safety 
of the ship effecting the capture, or may interfere with the success of operations of war in 
which she is engaged, naval commanding officers may destroy the prize after providing 
for the safety of the persons on board and the ship's papers and manifests and of anything 
else which may help in deciding the legitimacy of the capture. The destruction of a 
prize must be justified in a special proces-verbal. 

By order of His Majesty's lieutenant general, ministry of marine: 

Viale. 
(British Parliamentary Papers, Misc. No. IS (1915), cd. 8104.) 



FINAL PROVISIONS. 117 

at the end of successive periods of six years, of which the first will 
begin at the end of the period of twelve years. 

Such denunciation must be notified in writing, at least one year in 
advance, to the British Government, which shall inform all the other 
powers. 

It will only operate in respect of the power which shall have made 
the notification. 

Art. 70. The powers represented at the London Naval Conference 
attach particular value to the general recognition of the rules which 
they have adopted, and express the hope that the powers which were 
not represented there will adhere to the present declaration. They 
request the British Government to invite them to do so. 

A power which desires to adhere notifies its intention in writing to 
the British Government, in transmitting the act of adhesion, which 
will be deposited in the archives of the said Government. 

The said Government shall forthwith transmit to all the other powers 
a duly certified copy of the notification, as also of the act of adhesion, 
stating the date on which such notification was received. The adhe- 
sion takes effect sixty days after such date. 

The position of the adhering powers shall be in all matters concerning 
this declaration similar to the position of the signatory powers. 

Art. 71. The present declaration, which shall bear the date of the 
26th February, 1909, may be signed in London until the 30th June, 
1909, by the plenipotentiaries of the powers represented at the Naval 
Conference. 

In faith whereof the plenipotentiaries have signed the present decla- 
ration and have thereto affixed their seals. 

Done at London, the 26th day of February, 1909, in a single original, 
which shall remain deposited in the archives of the British Government, 
and of which duly certified copies shall be sent through the diplomatic 
channel to the powers represented at the Naval Conference. 



INDEX. 



Page 

Acts forbidden 8 

augmenting force of ships 8 

beginning military expedition 9 

coaling 10 

entering service 8 

fitting or arming vessels 8 

supplies 9, 10 

use of waters 9 

Air craft, Panama Canal Zone 14 

Ammunition, German embargo on 70 

Arming or fitting vessels 8 

Arms, German embargo on 70 

manufacture of 10 

sale of 10 

Asia Minor, notice of blockade 101 

Austria-Hungary, attitude toward Declaration of London 94 

days of grace 18 

days of grace, Great Britain 18, 23 

days of grace, France 18, 27 

days of grace, Italy 27 

Auxiliary vessels 12, 15 

Belligerent states, embargoes upon goods 57 

embargoes to ports 57 

Bulgaria-Great Britain, days of grace 18 

Blockade 11, 101 

Cameroons, notice of blockade of 101 

Capture 10 

Coal 10 

Compensation 114 

Compulsory unloading 16 

Contraband of war 10, 103 

Convention. Hague. VI, 1907. status of enemy merchant ships.. 17 

Hague. XI. 1907. bombardment 29 

Convoy". 113 

Days of grace 16 

Declaration of London 93-117 

Denmark, prohibition of exports 33 

Departure from Panama Canal 13 

Detention of ships 16 

Embargoes by belligerent States, upon goods 57 

to ports 57 

Embargoes, British 57-64 

excepted countries 63 

general 58 

to non-British points 60 

Embargoes, German export and transit 64-92 

arms : 70 

ammunition 70 

animals and animal products 64 

base metals 86 

bedding 65 

119 



120 1NDKX. 

Embargoes. German — Continued. I'age 

chemical products 78 

coal 83 

copper 85 

dyes 72 

earths 90 

electrotechnical requisites 80 

explosives 70-72 

fertilizers 77 

fodder 65 

hides 86 

iron 83 

leather 86 

lights 90 

machinery 80 

maps 91 

medicines 76 

metals, base 86 

nickel 85 

oils 71 

optical apparatus 82 

ores 83 

powder 70 

rubber 87 

soap 90 

stones 90 

subsistence supplies 65 

telegraphic appliances 81 

telephone appliances 81 

textile goods 89 

tin 85 

vehicles 79 

warships 79 

wax 90 

wood 86 

Enemy goods 32 

sequestration 28-29 

Enemy vessels, at outbreak of war 16 

sequestration 28 

Entering service 8 

Explosives, embargo on 70, 72 

Exports, German embargoes on 64-92 

neutral 33 

prohibition of 33 

Denmark 33 

Greece 36 

Netherlands 36 

Norway 39 

Portugal : 1 42 

Roumania : 43 

Spain 43 

Sweden 44 

Switzerland 53 

Expression of sympathies 10 

Fitting or arming vessels 8 

Forbidden acts. « See Acts forbidden.) 

France-Austria, days of grace 18, 27 

France-Germany, days of grace 18, 26-27 

France, attitude toward Declaration of London 98 

decree on enemy character 113 

list of contraband of war 103 



INDEX. 121 

Page 

Fuel 12 

German East Africa, notice of blockade 101 

Germany, attitude toward Declaration of London 95 

export embargoes 57 

Germany-France, days of grace 18, 2G 

Germany-Great Britain, days of grace 19 

Germany, transit embargoes 64 

Great Britain, attitude toward Declaration of London 95 

Great Britain-Austria-Hungary, days of grace 18, 23 

Great Britain-Bulgaria, days of grace 18, 24 

Great Britain-Germany, days of grace 19 

Great Britain-Turkey, days of grace 18 

Great Britain, embargoes 57 

list of contraband 104 

Greece, prohibition of exports 36 

Hague Convention, VI, 1907, davs of grace 17 

XI, 1907, bombardment. 29 

Hospital ship 12 

Indemnities, distribution of 32 

for unlawful acts 31 

Interference with shipping before "rc ar 16 

Italian prize regulations 114 

Italy-Austria-Hungary, days of grace 27 

Italy, days of grace '. 18, 27 

Law of nations on neutrality 10 

London, Declaration of 93-117 

Manufacture of arms 10 

Merchant ships, enemy 17 

Naval War College proposal, 1906. days of grace 18 

Negotiations concerning Declaration of London, 1914 93 

Netherlands, prohibition of exports 36 

Neutral exports 33 

Neutral goods, sequestration of 28, 29 

Neutrality agreement. United States and Panama 14 

Neutrality, law of nations on 10 

Neutrality penalties 11 

Neutrality proclamations. United States, 1914-15 7 

Neutral prizes, destruction of 1 11 

Norway, prohibition of exports 39 

Number of vessels in Panama Canal 13 

Order in council on enemy character 112 

Orders in council, August 4, 1914 17 

Outbreak of war, enemy vessels at 16 

Panama Canal 11 

aircraft 14 

departure from 13 

fuel 12 

number of vessels in , 13 

prizes • 12 

radio 14 

regulations 12, 13, 14 

repairs 14 

supplies 12 

troops in 13 

24-hour rule 13 

vessels in 12 

Panama, neutrality agreement with United States 14 

Panalties, neutrality 11 

Portugal, prohibition of exports 42 

Prize regulations, Italian 114 



122 IXDEX. 

Pa$e 

Prizes 32 

destruction of neutral Ill 

•in Panama Canal 12 

Prohibition of exports 33 

Radio. Panama Canal 14 

Reciprocity concerning days of grace 18 

Regulations. Panama Canal 12. 13. 14 

Repairs. Panama ( 'anal : 14 

Russia, attitude toward Declaration of London 94. 98 

Sale of arms : ' 10 

Search, resistance to 114 

Sequestered vessels, disposal of 30 

Sequestration, enemy vessels 28 

enemy goods 28. 29 

neutral goods 28, 29 

Service, unneutral J 10 

Shipping, interference with before the war 16 

Ships, detention of before the war 16. 17 

status of enemy merchant 17 

Supplies * 9. 10. 12 

Sympathies, expression of 10 

Transports 12. 15 

Troops in Panama (anal 13 

Turkey-Great Britain, days of grace 18 

Twenty-four hour rule 9, 13 

United States, attitude toward Declaration of London 99 

neutrality proclamations. 1914-15 7 

neutrality agreement with Panama 14 

Unlawful acts, indemnities for 31 

Unloading, compulsory before war 16 

Unneutral service 110 

Vessels of war defined 11 

Is. disposal of sequestered 30 

enemy, at outbreak of war 16 

fitting or arming 8 

in Panama Canal 12 

number of in Panama ( anal 13 

of war 11. 14 

sequestration of enemy * 28 

Warships. German embargo on 79 

Waters, use of forbidden 9 



O